A VINTAGE APPROXIMATELY 8 X 10 INCH PHOTOGRAPH. FROM NOVEMBER 12, 1963 OF. Baritone, (from Greek barytonos, deep-sounding), in vocal music, the most common category of male voice, between the bass and the tenor and with some characteristics of both. Normally, the baritone parts are written for a range of A to f , but this may be extended in either direction, particularly in solo compositions or as a reflection of an accepted cultural tradition e.
That of England, France, Italy, Germany, or Russia. In practice, the classification of voices is determined not only by range but also by the quality, or colour, of the voice and the purpose for which it is to be trained and used. A singer of oratorio, for example, might be comfortable as a tenor, whereas the harsher demands on a tenor in operatic roles might influence the singer to develop his baritone range instead.The term baritonans was first used in Western music toward the end of the 15th century, when composers, chiefly at the French court, explored the polyphonic sonorities made possible by the addition of lower-pitched voices. Later choral singing, which evolved into the popular four-part writing (soprano, alto, tenor, bass), usually omitted the baritone. German composers seem to have been the first to focus on the use of the baritone as a solo voice, and the prominent use of baritone characters in Wolfgang Amadeus Mozarts operas was regarded as a distinct innovation by his European contemporaries. The acceptance of the baritone for principal parts considerably widened the range of male character types and shifted more emphasis to the lower voices in hero and lover roles, which had heretofore been associated with the higher voices. Carl Van Vechten (June 17, 1880 December 21, 1964) was an American writer and artistic photographer who was a patron of the Harlem Renaissance and the literary executor of Gertrude Stein.  He gained fame as a writer, and notoriety as well, for his 1926 novel Nigger Heaven.
In his later years, he took up photography and took many portraits of notable people. Although he was married to women for most of his adult life, Van Vechten engaged in numerous homosexual affairs over his lifetime. Born in Cedar Rapids, Iowa, he was the youngest child of Charles and Ada Van Vechten. :14 Both of his parents were well educated. His father was a wealthy and prominent banker.His mother established the Cedar Rapids public library and had great musical talent.  As a child, Van Vechten developed a passion for music and theatre.  He graduated from Washington High School in 1898.
After high school, Van Vechten was eager to take the next steps in his life, but found it difficult to pursue his passions in Iowa. He described his hometown as "that unloved town". In order to advance his education, he decided in 1899 to study at the University of Chicago where he studied a variety of topics including music, art and opera. As a student, he became increasingly interested in writing and wrote for the college newspaper, the University of Chicago Weekly.
After graduating from college in 1903, Van Vechten accepted a job as a columnist for the Chicago American. In his column "The Chaperone", Van Vechten covered many different topics through a style of semi-autobiographical gossip and criticism. During his time with the Chicago American, he was occasionally asked to include photographs with his column. This was the first time he was thought to have experimented with photography which later became one of his greatest passions.  Van Vechten was fired from his position with the Chicago American because of what was described as an elaborate and complicated style of writing. Some described his contributions to the paper as "lowering the tone of the Hearst papers".  In 1906, he moved to New York City.
He was hired as the assistant music critic at The New York Times.  His interest in opera had him take a leave of absence from the paper in 1907 to travel to Europe and explore opera. While in England, he married Anna Snyder, his long-time friend from Cedar Rapids. Under the leadership of Van Vechten's social mentor Mabel Dodge Luhan, he became engrossed in avant-garde art.This was an innovative type of art which explores new styles or subject matters and is thought to be well ahead of other art in terms of technique, subject matter, and application. He also began to frequently attend groundbreaking musical premieres at the time when Isadora Duncan, Anna Pavlova, and Loie Fuller were performing in New York City. He also attended premieres in Paris where he met American author and poet Gertrude Stein in 1913.  He became a devoted friend and champion of Stein. He was considered to be one of Stein's most enthusiastic fans.  They continued corresponding for the remainder of Stein's life, and, at her death, she appointed Van Vechten her literary executor; he helped to bring into print her unpublished writings.
:306 A collection of the letters between Van Vechten and Stein has been published. Van Vechten wrote a piece called "How to Read Gertrude Stein" for the arts magazine The Trend.In his piece, Van Vechten attempted to demystify Gertrude Stein and bring clarity to her works. Van Vechten came to the conclusion that Gertrude Stein is a difficult author to understand and she can be best understood when one has been guided through her work by an "expert insider". He writes that "special writers require special readers". The marriage to Anna Snyder ended in divorce in 1912, and he wed actress Fania Marinoff in 1914.  Van Vechten and Marinoff were known for ignoring the social separation of races during the times and for inviting blacks to their home for social gatherings. They also were known to attend public gatherings for black people and to visit black friends in their homes. Although Van Vechten's marriage to his wife Fania Marinoff lasted for 50 years, they often had arguments about Van Vechten's affairs with men.  Van Vechten was known to have romantic and sexual relationships with men, especially Mark Lutz. Mark Lutz (19011968) grew up in Richmond, Virginia, and was introduced to Van Vechten by Hunter Stagg in New York in 1931. Lutz was a model for some of Van Vechten's earliest experiments with photography.
The friendship lasted until Van Vechten's death. At Lutz's death, as per his wishes, the correspondence with Van Vechten, amounting to 10,000 letters, was destroyed. Lutz donated his collection of Van Vechten's photographs to the Philadelphia Museum of Art. Several books of Van Vechten's essays on various subjects, such as music and literature, were published between 1915 and 1920, and Vechten also served as an informal scout for the newly formed Alfred A.
 Between 1922 and 1930 Knopf published seven novels by him, starting with Peter Whiffle: His Life and Works and ending with Parties.  His sexuality is most clearly reflected in his intensely homoerotic portraits of working-class men. As an appreciator of the arts, Van Vechten was extremely intrigued by the explosion of creativity which was occurring in Harlem. He was drawn towards the tolerance of Harlem society and the excitement it generated among black writers and artists.He also felt most accepted there as a gay man.  Van Vechten promoted many of the major figures of the Harlem Renaissance, including Paul Robeson, Langston Hughes, Ethel Waters, Richard Wright, Zora Neale Hurston and Wallace Thurman. Van Vechten's controversial novel Nigger Heaven was published in 1926. His essay "Negro Blues Singers" was published in Vanity Fair in 1926. Biographer Edward White suggests Van Vechten was convinced that negro culture was the essence of America.
Van Vechten played a critical role in the Harlem Renaissance and helped to bring greater clarity to the African-American movement. However, for a long time he was also seen as a very controversial figure. In Van Vechten's early writings, he claimed that black people were born to be entertainers and sexually "free". In other words, he believed that black people should be free to explore their sexuality and singers should follow their natural talents such as jazz, spirituals and blues.  Van Vechten wrote about his experiences of attending a Bessie Smith concert at the Orpheum Theatre in Newark, New Jersey, in 1925.In Harlem, Van Vechten often attended opera and cabarets. He was credited for the surge in white interest in Harlem nightlife and culture as well as involved in helping well respected writers such as Langston Hughes and Nella Larsen to find publishers for their early works. In 2001, Emily Bernard published "Remember Me to Harlem". This was a collection of letters which documented the long friendship between Van Vechten and Langston Hughes, who publicly defended Nigger Heaven.  Bernard's book Carl Van Vechten and the Harlem Renaissance: A Portrait in Black and White explores the messy and uncomfortable realities of race, and the complicated tangle of black and white in America.
Van Vechten House and Studio, Manhattan, New York City, 2017. By the start of the 1930s and at the age of 50, Van Vechten was finished with writing and took up photography, using his apartment at 150 West 55th Street as a studio, where he photographed many notable people. After the 1930s Van Vechten published little writing, though he continued writing letters to many correspondents.
Van Vechten died in 1964 at the age of 84 in New York City. His ashes were scattered over the Shakespeare garden in Central Park, Manhattan, New York.  He was the subject of a 1968 biography by Bruce Kellner, Carl Van Vechten and the Irreverent Decades,  as well as Edward White's 2014 biography, The Tastemaker: Carl Van Vechten and the Birth of Modern America. Most of Van Vechten's personal papers are held by the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library at Yale University.The Beinecke Library also holds a collection titled "Living Portraits: Carl Van Vechten's Color Photographs Of African Americans, 19391964", a collection of 1,884 color Kodachrome slides. Saul Mauriber, after a photograph of Salvador Dalí by Halsman, 1944 by Van Vechten. The Library of Congress has a collection of approximately 1,400 photographs, which it acquired in 1966 from Saul Mauriber (May 21, 1915 February 12, 2003). There is also a collection of Van Vechten's photographs in the Prentiss Taylor collection in the Smithsonian's Archives of American Art, and a Van Vechten collection at Fisk University. The Museum of the City of New York's collection includes 2,174 of Carl Van Vechten's photographs. Brandeis University's department of Archives & Special Collections holds 1,689 Carl Van Vechten portraits.  Van Vechten also donated materials to Fisk University to form the George Gershwin Memorial Collection of Music and Musical Literature. The Philadelphia Museum of Art currently holds one of the largest collection of photographs by Van Vechten in the United States. The collection began in 1949 when Van Vechten made a gift of sixty of his photographs to the museum. In 1965, Mark Lutz made a gift to the museum of over 12,000 photographs by Van Vechten from his personal collection. Included in the collection are images from extensive portrait sessions with figures of the Harlem Renaissance such as Langston Hughes, Ella Fitzgerald, Billie Holiday, Zora Neale Hurston, and Cab Calloway; artists such as Marcel Duchamp, Henri Matisse, Joan Miró, and Frida Kahlo; and countless other actors, musicians, and cultural figures.
In 1980, concerned that Van Vechten's fragile 35 mm nitrate negatives were fast deteriorating, photographer Richard Benson, in conjunction with the Eakins Press Foundation, transformed 50 of the portraits into handmade gravure prints. The album'O, Write My Name': American Portraits, Harlem Heroes was completed in 1983.That year, the National Endowment for the Arts transferred the Eakins Press Foundation's prototype albums to the permanent collection of the Smithsonian American Art Museum. The National Portrait Gallery, London, holds 17 of Van Vechten's portraits of leading creative talents of his era. At age 40, Van Vechten wrote the book Peter Whiffle, which established him as a respected novelist.
This novel was recognized as contemporary and an important work to the collection of Harlem Renaissance history. In his novel, autobiographical facts were arranged into a fictional form.
In addition to Peter Whiffle, Van Vechten wrote several other novels. One is The Tattooed Countess, a disguised manipulation of his memories of growing up in Cedar Rapids.  His book the Tiger in the House explores the quirks and qualities of Van Vechtens most beloved animal, the cat.
One of his more controversial novels, Nigger Heaven, was received with both controversy and praise. Van Vechten called this book "my Negro novel". He intended for this novel to depict how African Americans were living in Harlem and not about the suffering of blacks in the South who were dealing with racism and lynchings. Although many encouraged Van Vechten to reconsider giving his novel such a controversial name, he could not resist having an incendiary title.Some worried that his title would take away from the content of the book. In one letter, his father wrote to him "Whatever you may be compelled to say in the book, " he wrote, your present title will not be understood & I feel certain you should change it. Many black readers were divided over how the novel depicted African Americans. Some felt that it depicted black people as "alien and strange", and others valued the novel for its representation of African Americans as everyday people, with complexity and flaws just like typical White characters. The novel's supporters included Nella Larsen, Langston Hughes and Gertrude Stein, who all defended the novel for bringing Harlem society and racial issues to the forefront of America.
His supporters also sent him letters to voice their opinions of the novel. Alain Locke sent Van Vechten a letter from Berlin citing his novel Nigger Heaven and the excitement surrounding its release as his primary reason for making an imminent return home. Gertrude Stein sent Van Vechten a letter from France writing that the novel was the best thing he had ever written. Stein also played an important role in the development of the novel. Well known critics of this novel included African-American scholar W.Du Bois and black novelist Wallace Thurman. Du Bois dismissed the novel as "cheap melodrama".  Decades after the book was published, literary critic and scholar Ralph Ellison remembered Van Vechten as a bad influence, an unpleasant character who "introduced a note of decadence into Afro-American literary matters which was not needed". In 1981, David Levering Lewis, historian and author of a classic study of the Harlem Renaissance, called Nigger Heaven a "colossal fraud, " a seemingly uplifting book with a message that was overshadowed by "the throb of the tom-tom". He viewed Van Vechten as being driven by "a mixture of commercialism and patronizing sympathy".
Music After the Great War (1915). Music and Bad Manners (1916). The Music of Spain (1918).
The Tiger in the House (1920). Lords of the Housetops (1921). Sacred and Profane Memories (1932). The Dance Writings of Carl Van Vechten (1974). Source: A bibliography of the writings of Carl Van Vechten at the HathiTrust Digital Library.
Pierre Balmain and Ruth Ford, 1947. Robert Hunt and Witter Bynner. Donald Windham and Sandy Campbell, 1955. John Gielgud as Richard II, 1936. Arthur Gold and Robert Fizdale, 1952.
Martha Graham and Bertram Ross, 1961. Marilyn Horne and Henry Lewis, 1961.
Carl Van Vechten: Biography and Chronology. Carl Van Vechten was born on June 17, 1880 in Cedar Rapids, Iowa.At an early age, he developed an interest in music and theater, which he found hard to satisfy in his hometown. He left Iowa in 1899 to attend the University of Chicago. In Chicago he was able to explore art, music, and opera. He became interested in writing and contributed to the University of Chicago Weekly. After college, Van Vechten's first job was with the Chicago American.
In addition to covering a broad range of topics, he was occasionally asked to provide photographs to go along with his copy. In 1906, when Van Vechten moved to New York City, he was hired as the assistant music critic at the New York Times. His interest in opera prompted him to take a leave of absence from the Times in 1907, to examine this art form in Europe. While in England he married his long time friend from Cedar Rapids, Anna Snyder.The marriage would end in divorce in 1912. At that time, Isadora Duncan, Anna Pavlova, and Loie Fuller were performing in New York. In 1914, Van Vechten married actress Fania Marinoff. He left his full time newspaper job in the spring, but he continued to write, and published several collections of his essays relating to music, ballet, and cats. Peter Whiffle: His Life and Works, Van Vechten's first novel, was published in 1922. Van Vechten became very interested in promoting black artists and writers. He was an avid collector of ephemera and books pertaining to black arts and letters and a frequent visitor to Harlem.
These experiences provided the inspiration for his controversial novel, Nigger Heaven, which was published in 1926. In the future, he would photograph many of the creative people he met in Harlem. In the early 1930s, Miguel Covarrubias introduced Van Vechten to the 35mm Leica camera. He began photographing his large circle of friends and acquaintances. His earlier career as a writer and his wife's experience as an actress provided him with access to both fledgling artists and the established cultural figures of the time.
Some of his subjects from this period include F. Scott Fitzgerald, Langston Hughes, Alfred A.
Knopf, Bessie Smith, and Gertrude Stein. Van Vechten's portraits are frequently busts or half-length poses, in front of bold backdrops. Dancers were usually photographed on stage.
Van Vechten did his own darkroom work, but frequently used an assistant to help set up lights for the portrait sittings. During World War II, Van Vechten volunteered at the Stage Door Canteen.
Top-notch entertainers frequently performed there for servicemen. Saul Mauriber, one of the busboys under Van Vechten's supervision, began working as his photographic assistant and remained in this capacity for twenty years. Mauriber was also responsible for organizing Van Vechten's photographs and eventually became the photographic executor for Van Vechten's estate. Van Vechten's photographs have been widely exhibited and frequently used as illustrations in books and magazines.
He felt very strongly that his collection of manuscripts, letters, clippings, programs, and photographs, many pertaining to creative blacks, should be available for scholarly research. With this in mind, during his lifetime, he presented various parts of his collection to several university libraries.
The Library of Congress acquired its collection of approximately 1,400 photographs in 1966 from Saul Mauriber. Van Vechten remained active, writing and photographing, up until his death in 1964. Born June 17 in Cedar Rapids, Iowa, to Charles Duane Van Vechten and Ada Amanda Fitch. Graduates from the University of Chicago. Moves to New York City, where he is hired by the New York Times as assistant to the music critic.
Travels to Europe to study opera. Becomes Paris correspondent for the New York Times. Becomes the first American critic of modern dance, while working at the New York Times. Works as drama critic for the New York Press. Publishes several collections of essays relating to music, dance, and cats.Writes seven novels, including Peter Whiffle: His Life and Works, published in 1922, and Nigger Heaven, published in 1926. Buys a Leica and begins photographing both fledgling and established artists and performers. Van Vechten's photographs are displayed at Bergdorf Goodman, along with the work of Cecil Beaton, Edward Steichen, Man Ray, and George Platt Lynes. Exhibits photographs in the annual Leica Exhibition.
Exhibits over 100 theater photographs at the Museum of the City of New York. Works as a volunteer at the Stage Door Canteen. Saul Mauriber begins work as Van Vechten's assistant and organizes his photographs, an association that lasts for 20 years.
Exhibits photographs at the Philadelphia Museum of Art. Receives honorary degree, Doctor of Literature, from Fisk University.Dies at the age of 84 in New York City. The item "JAMES V LOWE BY CARL VAN VECHTEN 1963 NYC AFRICAN AMERICAN OPERA SINGER BARITONE" is in sale since Saturday, May 23, 2020. This item is in the category "Art\Art Photographs". The seller is "collectiblecollectiblecollectible" and is located in Ann Arbor, Michigan. This item can be shipped to United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Denmark, Romania, Slovakia, Bulgaria, Czech republic, Finland, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Estonia, Australia, Greece, Portugal, Cyprus, Slovenia, Japan, Sweden, South Korea, Indonesia, Taiwan, Thailand, Belgium, France, Hong Kong, Ireland, Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Italy, Germany, Austria, Bahamas, Israel, Mexico, New Zealand, Philippines, Singapore, Norway, Saudi arabia, United arab emirates, Qatar, Kuwait, Bahrain, Croatia, Malaysia, Chile, Costa rica, Panama, Trinidad and tobago, Guatemala, Honduras, Jamaica, Aruba, Belize, Dominica, Grenada, Saint kitts and nevis, Turks and caicos islands, Bangladesh, Brunei darussalam, Bolivia, Ecuador, Egypt, French guiana, Guernsey, Gibraltar, Guadeloupe, Iceland, Jersey, Jordan, Cambodia, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Monaco, Macao, Martinique, Nicaragua, Peru, Pakistan, Paraguay, Viet nam, Uruguay.