Photo African American

Ernest Withers Photo 8x10 African American Artist Photographer Negro Leagues

Ernest Withers Photo 8x10 African American Artist Photographer Negro Leagues
Ernest Withers Photo 8x10 African American Artist Photographer Negro Leagues

Ernest Withers Photo 8x10 African American Artist Photographer Negro Leagues   Ernest Withers Photo 8x10 African American Artist Photographer Negro Leagues


KING TUT OF THE INDIANAPOLIS CLOWS WITH A FAN EARLY 1950S GELATIN SILVER PRINT Printed later by Ernest C. (Memphis, TN, 1922-Memphis, TN, 2007). ERNEST WITHERS: A Second Look. In: Art New England 32, no. Selected Civil Rights Photographs of ERNEST C.

Foreword by poet Margaret Walker; text by Michele Furst, et al. Important work by a photographer also known for his photographs of the Memphis Blues scene during the same period. Unlike many photojournalists who covered the Civil Rights Movement, Ernest Withers was an active participant in the cause and his work often went unpaid and without credit.

Widely published in Time, Life, and Newsweek magazines, Withers's photographs record the more quiet, personal moments within the larger, historic events. Traveled to: Diggs Gallery, Winston-Salem State University, through Dec. 10, 1994, and other venues; exhibition of same title at Harriet Tubman House, Macon, GA, 2000. Signs of Social Change: Photographs by ERNEST C. A selection of works from Withers's archive of Civil Rights movement photographs.

Museum of Art, University of Mississippi. Memphis Brooks Museum of Art. One Day is Not Enough: Memphis Desegregation Through the Lens of ERNEST WITHERS. Pictures Tell the Story: ERNEST C. Jack Hurley and Daniel J.

The first major monograph on the Memphis photographer who, more than any other, documented the Southern chapter of the Civil Rights Movement as well as the lively music scene in Memphis and the Negro League. Gail Floether Steinhilber Art Gallery, University of Wisconsin-Oshkosh.

I Was There: Photographs by Civil Rights Photographer ERNEST C. Pictures Tell the Story: Photographs by ERNEST C. WITHERS Documenting the Civil Rights Movement. Complete Photo Story of Till Murder Case.

Self-published booklet by Ernest C. Negro League Baseball: Photographs by ERNEST C. 4to 26 x 25 cm. Wolff, Daniel and ERNEST C. WITHERS: The Memphis Blues Again.

New York: Viking Studio, 2001. Same title as the 2005 exhibition of the High Museum's recently acquired collection of over 75 of Withers' photographs from the 1950s-1970s depicting the rise of the Memphis and Tennessee music scene, covering many different musical genres blues, jazz, R&B, gospel, early rock and roll, soul and funk.

4to 12.3 x 10.9 in. GENERAL BOOKS AND GROUP EXHIBITIONS. Group exhibition of nearly 170 historic photographs. Curated by Julian Cox, Curator of Photography at the High Museum of Art. Includes work by Doris Derby, Leroy Henderson, and Ernest ithers, dozens of well-known white activist photographers, photojournalists, and also important photos taken by amateurs and press corps photographers which are not often displayed in a museum context.

Traveled to: kirball Cultural Center, -March 7, 2010 where The Skirball added a new section to the exhibition that documents the struggle for civil rights in Los Angeles; among the local events portrayed are the picketing of the Kress Store in Pasadena (1960) and the Watts Riots (1965). This expanded exhibition also included a documentary film, specially produced for the Skirball's presentation of Road to Freedom, that illuminates the unified efforts of the Jewish and African American communities to achieve justice for all during the Civil Rights movement; also exhibited Bronx Museum of the Arts, March 28-August 11, 2010.

Seeing Through Race: A Reinterpretation of Civil Rights Photography. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2011. Only two images are by a black photographer - Ernest C.

A study of how white journalists and their audiences selected, framed, and responded to images of the Civil Rights era, with selective comparisons to coverage of the same events by the black media. Constructing Masculinity Discussion in Contemporary Culture, No. Adrian Piper, Marlon Riggs, Ernest C.

Extensive discussion of race stereotypes of black males in popular culture, the media and the arts. Group exhibition of work by three photographers. Our Lives Begin to End the Day We Become Silent About Things That Matter - Dr. Included: Ernest Withers, Tanya Murphy Dodd, Frank Stewart, Leroy Henderson and Robert Sengstacke. Sight of Sound: Photographs by Ryan Mastro, Ron Pownall, Charlie Sawyer, Frank Stewart, and Ernest C.

Group exhibition of music-related photographs. Witness: Art and Civil Rights in the Sixties.

Texts by Kellie Jones, Connie H. Choi, Teresa A Carbone, Cynthia A.

Includes: Chalres Alston, Benny Andrews, Emma Amos, Romare Bearden, Frank Bowling, Elizabeth Catlett, Barbara Chase-Riboud, LeRoy P. Clarke, Roy DeCarava, Jeff Donaldson, Emory Douglas, Melvin Edwards, Sam Gilliam, David Hammons, Ben Hazard, Barkeley Hendricks, Jae Jarrell, Daniel Larue Johnson, Barbara Jones-Hogu, Jacob Lawrence, Norman Lewis, Tom Lloyd, Ademola Olugebefola, John Outterbridge, Joe Overstreet, Gordon Parks, Ben Patterson, Noah Purifoy, Faith Ringgold, John T. Riddle, Betye Saar, Raymond Saunders, Robert A. Bob Thompson, Charles White, Jack Whitten, William T.

Dozens of others mentioned in passing. Traveled to: Hood Museum of Art, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH, August 30-December 14, 2014. 4to 11.2 x 9.7 in. MoCADA Museum of Contemporary African Diasporan Art. September 25, 2008-January 18, 2009.

Included: Hank Willis Thomas, Russell Frederick, Rah Crawford, Radcliffe Bailey, Charly Palmer, LeRoy Henderson, Fahamu Pecou, Jefferson Pinder, Jamel Shabazz, Lorenzo Steele, Jr. Juan Sanchez and Ernest C Withers. Exhibiting Blackness: African Americans and the American Art Museum. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2011. The narrative begins in 1927 with the Chicago "Negro in Art Week" exhibition, and in the 1930s with the Museum of Modern Art's exhibition of "William Edmondson" (1937) and "Contemporary Negro Art" (1939) at the Baltimore Museum of Art; the focus, however, is on exhibitions held from the 1960s to present with chapters on "Harlem on My Mind" (1969), "Two Centuries of Black American Art" (1976); "Black Male" (1994-95); and "The Quilts of Gee's Bend" (2202).

Numerous artists, but most mentioned only in passing: Cedric Adams, Charles Alston, Emma Amos, Benny Andrews, Edward M. Bannister, Richmond Barthé, Romare Bearden, numerous Bendolphs (Annie, Jacob, Mary Ann, Mary Lee, Louisiana) and Loretta Bennett, Ed Bereal, Donald Bernard, Nayland Blake, Gloria Bohanon, Leslie Bolling, St. Clair Bourne, Cloyd Boykin, Kay Brown, Selma Burke, Bernie Casey, Roland Charles, Barbara Chase-Riboud, Claude Clark, Linda Day Clark, Robert Colescott, Dan Concholar, Emilio Cruz, Ernest Crichlow (footnote only), Alonzo Davis, Selma Day (footnote only), Roy DeCarava, Aaron Douglas, Emory Douglas, Robert M. Duncanson, William Edmondson, Elton Fax (footnote only), Cecil L. Fergerson, Roland Freeman, Meta Vaux Warrick Fuller, Reginald Gammon (footnote only), K.

Ganaway, Sam Gilliam, David Hammons, William A. Harper, Palmer Hayden, Vertis C. Herring, Richard Hunt, Rudy Irwin, May Howard Jackson, Suzanne Jackson, Joshua Johnson, William H. Johnson, Lois Mailou Jones, Gwendolyn Knight, Wifredo Lam, Artis Lane, Jacob Lawrence, Edmonia Lewis, Norman Lewis, Samella Lewis, Alvin Loving (footnote only), William Majors (footnote only), Richard Mayhew, Reginald McGhee, Archibald J. Richard Mayhew, Willie Middlebrook, Ron Moody, Lottie and Lucy Mooney, Flora Moore, Scipio Moorhead, Norma Morgan, Archibald J. Sara Murrell (footnote only), Otto Neals (footnote only), Odili Donald Odita, Noni Olubisi, Ademola Olugebefola, John Outterbridge, Gordon Parks, six Pettways Annie E. Letisha, James Phillips, Howardena Pindell, Horace Pippin, Carl Pope, James A. Porter, Nancy Elizabeth Prophet, Noah Purifoy, Martin Puryear, Okoe Pyatt (footnote only), Robert Reid (footnote only), John Rhoden, John Riddle, Faith Ringgold (footnote only), Betye Saar, Raymond Saunders (footnote only), Augusta Savage, William E. Scott, Georgette Seabrook, James Sepyo (footnote only), Taiwo Shabazz (footnote only), Gary Simmons, Lorna Simpson, Merton Simpson (footnote only), Albert Alexander Smith, Arenzo Smith, Frank Stewart, Henry Ossawa Tanner, Alma Thomas, Danny Tisdale, Melvin Van Peebles, James Vanderzee, Annie Walker, Kara Walker, Augustus Washington, Timothy Washington, Carrie Mae Weems, James Lesesne Wells, Charles White, Pat Ward Williams, William T. Williams, Deborah Willis, Fred Wilson, Ernest C. Withers, Beulah Ecton Woodard, Hale Woodruff, Lloyd Yearwood, Annie Mae and Nettie Pettway Young. 8vo 9 x 6 in.

Center for Documentary Studies, Duke University, 1999. This issue contains an article on the photographs of Ernest C.

Withers and photojournalism on Tupelo, Mississippi. GATES, HENRY LOUIS and EVELYN BROOKS HIGGINBOTHAM, eds. Originally published in 8 volumes, the set has grown to 12 vollumes with the addition of 1000 new entries. Also available as online database of biographies, accessible only to paid subscribers well-endowed institutions and research libraries. As per update of February 2, 2009, the following artists were included in the 8-volume set, plus addenda.

A very poor showing for such an important reference work. Hopefully there are many more artists in the new entries: Jesse Aaron, Julien Abele (architect), John H. Ron Adams, Salimah Ali, James Latimer Allen, Charles H. Alston, Amalia Amaki, Emma Amos, Benny Andrews, William E.

Artis, Herman "Kofi" Bailey, Walter T. Bailey (architect), James Presley Ball, Edward M. Bannister, Anthony Barboza, Ernie Barnes, Richmond Barthé, Jean-Michel Basquiat, Cornelius Marion Battey, Romare Bearden, Phoebe Beasley, Arthur Bedou, Mary A. Bell, Cuesta Ray Benberry, John Biggers, Camille Billops, Howard Bingham, Alpha Blackburn, Robert H. Blackburn, Walter Scott Blackburn, Melvin R.

Bolden, David Bustill Bowser, Wallace Branch, Barbara Brandon, Grafton Tyler Brown, Richard Lonsdale Brown, Barbara Bullock, Selma Hortense Burke, Calvin Burnett, Margaret Taylor Goss Burroughs, John Bush, Elmer Simms Campbell, Elizabeth Catlett, David C. Raven Chanticleer, Ed Clark, Allen Eugene Cole, Robert H. Colescott, Eldzier Cortor, Ernest T. Crichlow, Michael Cummings, Dave the Potter [David Drake], Griffith J. Davis, Thomas Day, Beauford Delaney, Joseph Delaney, Thornton Dial, Sr.

Joseph Eldridge Dodd, Jeff Donaldson, Aaron Douglas, Sam Doyle, David Clyde Driskell, Robert S. Duncanson, Ed Dwight (listed as military, not as artist); Mel Edwards, Minnie Jones Evans, William McNight Farrow, Elton Fax, Daniel Freeman, Meta Warrick Fuller, Reginald Gammon, King Daniel Ganaway, the Goodridge Brothers, Rex Goreleigh, Tyree Guyton, James Hampton, Della Brown Taylor (Hardman), Edwin Augustus Harleston, Charles "Teenie" Harris, Lyle Ashton Harris, Bessie Harvey, Isaac Scott Hathaway, Palmer Hayden, Nestor Hernandez, George Joseph Herriman, Varnette Honeywood, Walter Hood, Richard L. Hunster, Richard Hunt, Clementine Hunter, Bill Hutson, Joshua Johnson, Sargent Claude Johnson, William H.

Johnson, Lois Mailou Jones, Ann Keesee, Gwendolyn Knight, Jacob Lawrence, Hughie Lee-Smith, Edmonia Lewis, Samella Lewis, Glenn Ligon, Jules Lion, Edward Love, Estella Conwill Majozo, Ellen Littlejohn, Kerry James Marshall, Lynn Marshall-Linnemeier, Richard Mayhew, Carolyn Mazloomi, Aaron Vincent McGruder, Robert H. McNeill, Scipio Moorhead, Archibald H. Imagination (Gregory Warmack), Lorraine O'Grady, Jackie Ormes, Joe Overstreet, Carl Owens, Gordon Parks, Sr. Edgar Patience, Howardena Pindell, Adrian Margaret Smith Piper, Rose Piper, Horace Pippin, William Sidney Pittman, Stephanie Pogue, Prentiss Herman Polk (as Prentice), James Amos Porter, Harriet Powers, Elizabeth Prophet, Martin Puryear, Patrick Henry Reason, Michael Richards, Arthur Rose, Alison Saar, Betye Saar, Raymond Saunders, Augusta Savage, Joyce J.

Scott, Addison Scurlock, George Scurlock, Willie Brown Seals, Charles Sebree, Joe Selby, Lorna Simpson, Norma Merrick Sklarek, Clarissa Sligh, Albert Alexander Smith, Damballah Smith, Marvin and Morgan Smith, Maurice B. Sorrell, Simon Sparrow, Rozzell Sykes, Henry Ossawa Tanner, Alma Thomas, J.

Thomas, Robert Louis (Bob) Thompson, Mildred Jean Thompson, Dox Thrash, William Tolliver, Bill Traylor, Leo F. Twiggs, James Augustus Joseph Vanderzee, Kara Walker, William Onikwa Wallace, Laura Wheeler Waring, Augustus Washington, James W.

Carrie Mae Weems, James Lesesne Wells, Charles White, John H. White, Jack Whitten, Carla Williams, Daniel S. Williams, Paul Revere Williams (architect), Deborah Willis, Ed Wilson, Ellis Wilson, Fred Wilson, John Woodrow Wilson, Ernest C. Withers, Beulah Ecton Woodard, Hale Aspacio Woodruff. GOLDBERG, VICKI and ROBERT SILBERMAN, eds. American Photography: A Century of Images. San Francisco: Chronicle Books, 1999. 50 color and 110 b&w illus.

Includes: Bernie Boston, Albert Chong, Chester Higgins, Jr. Gordon Parks, Eli Reed, Lorna Simpson, James Vanderzee, Carrie Mae Weems, Ernest C.

HALL, STUART and MARK SEALY, eds. Different: Historical Context Contemporary Photographers and Black Identity. London and New York: Phaidon, 2001.

(most full-page), index of artists. Major text by Stuart Hall. Work by black artists from the U. Britain, Caribbean, and Africa, exploring images of their identity. Includes: Ajamu, Faisal Abdu'allah, Vincent Allen, David A.

Bailey, Oladélé Bamgboyé, Dawoud Bey, Zarina Bhimji, Vanley Burke, Mama Casset, Albert V. Chong, Clement Cooper, Rotimi Fani-Kayode, Samuel Fosso, Armet Francis, Remy Gastambide, Bob Gosani, Joy Gregory, George Hallett, Lyle Ashton Harris, Seydou Keita, Roshini Kempadoo, Peter Max Khondola, Alf Kumalo, Anthony Lam, Eric Lesdema, Dave Lewis, Peter Magubane, Ricky Maynard, Eustaguio Neves, Horace Ove, Gordon Parks, Eileen Perrier, Ingrid Pollard, Richard Samuel Roberts, Franklyn Rodgers, Faizal Sheikh, Yinka Shonibare, Malick Sidibé, Lorna Simpson, Clarissa Sligh, Robert Taylor, Iké Udé, James VanDerZee, Maxine Walker, Carrie Mae Weems, Deborah Willis, Ernest Withers.

KING: The Photobiography of Martin Luther King, Jr.. Includes photographs by Frank Dandrige, Benedict J.

Fernandez, Robert Sengstacke, Ernest Withers, as well as dozens of white photographers. 4to 12 x 9 in. Kalamazoo Institute of the Arts.

Embracing Diverse Voices: African-American Art in the Collection. Group exhibition of over sixty works of art. Artists included: Al Harris, Murphy Darden, James M. Watkins, Maria Scott and James Palmore along with nationally known artists Robert S.

Duncanson, Henry Ossawa Tanner, Romare Bearden, Elizabeth Catlett, Jacob Lawrence, Lorna Simpson, Hughie Lee-Smith, Charles White, photographs by James Van Der Zee and Ernest C. Traveled to: Thorne-Sagendorph Art Gallery, Keene State College, Keene, NH, September 19-November 16, 2014. Energy and Inspiration: African-American Art from the Permanent Collection. Included: Ron Adams, Romare Bearden, Robert G. Carter, Reginald Gammon, Sam Gilliam, Earlie Hudnall Jr.

Richard Hunt, Jacob Lawrence, Richard Mayhew, Kara Walker, Ernest C. By Steven Kasher; foreword by Myrlie Evers-Williams. Black photographers of the movement included Gordon Parks and Frank Dandridge working for Life; Robert Sengstacke of the Chicago Defender; Joffre Clark, Fred de Van, Bob Fletcher, Rufus Hinton, Julius Lester, Francis Mitchell, and Clifford Vaughs of SNCC; and freelancers Ernest Withers, Beuford Smith, and Robert Houston. The owners of Jet and Ebony, employed a large staff of black photographers including Moneta Sleet, Jr. 4to 9 x 9 in. Streetwise: Masters of 60s Photography. The Power of Art: Generational Wealth. Included: Benny Andrews, Richmond Barthé, John T. Biggers, Elizabeth Catlett, Robert S. Duncanson, LaToya Hobbs, Clementine Hunter, Dean Mitchell, Charles Ethan Porter, Henry Ossawa Tanner, Ernest C. Pyramid / Hearne Fine Art. Note: Exhibition title was slightly different: Two Decades of Excellence. Foreword by Halima Taha; texts by Archie Hearne, III, Garbo Watson Hearne; afterword by Dianne Smith. Includes new work by 57 artists: Gabriel Ajayi.

Leroy Allen, Benny Andrews, Phoebe Beasley, Alix Beaujour, John Biggers, Bisa Butler, Elizabeth Catlett, Chukes, William Clarke, Kevin Cole, Adger Cowans, Charles Criner, Earnest Davidson, Rex Deloney, Ed Dwight, Marion Epting, Lawrence Finney, Frank Frazier, Paul Goodnight, Jonathan Green, Larry Hampton, Chester Higgins, Jr. Kennith Humphrey, George Hunt, Ariston Jacks, Laura James, Leroy Johnson, Brenda Joysmith, Artis Lane, Anthony D. Lee, Samella Lewis, Sylvester McKissick, Dean Mitchell, Tonia Mitchell, Euneda Otis, Charly Palmer, Johnice Parker, Morris Richardson, II, Mario Robinson, W. Earl Robinson, Alvin Roy, AJ Smith, Albert Smith, Dianne Smith, Phyllis Stephens, TAFA, Twins (Jerry & Terry Lynn), Evita Tezeno, William Tolliver, Ed Wade, Dale Washington, Basil Watson, Kiersten Williams, Susan Williams, Marjorie Williams-Smith, Ernest C. Traveled to: Chattanooga African American Museum.

Review: Michael Crumb, "African American Art History: Collaborating With You, " The Chattanooga Pulse, September 16, 2009. 4to 29 x 30 cm. 11.75 x 11.25 in.

August 23, 2008-January 5, 2009. Curated from the Brooks Museum of Art Memphis World Collection.

By Marina Pacini; texts by Russell Wigginton (on the history of the Memphis World newspaper) and by Deborah Willis emphasis on black press photographers generally, most of whom were not included in the exhibition: Allan Edward Cole, Gordon Parks, and Teenie Harris. Includes: 12 photos by Ernest C.

Withers, 11 by the Hooks Brothers, several by R. Jaffe, Henry Ford, Reese Studios, Mark Stansbury, Tisby. The selection includes photographs of groups and numerous photographs of individuals with brier biographies and other information on each by fifteen contributors. 19 of the photographs also exhibited at: Clough Hanson Gallery, Rhodes College, September 5-October 4, 2008. The Soul of a City: Memphis Collects African American Art.

Group exhibition of 130 works. Included: Romare Bearden, Radcliffe Bailey, Chakaia Booker, Elizabeth Catlett, Sonya Clark, Thornton Dial, William Edmondson, Minnie Evans, Sam Gilliam, Clementine Hunter, Jacob Lawrence, Norman Lewis, Glenn Ligon, Whitfield Lovell, Wangechi Mutu, Demetrius Oliver, Elijah Pierce, Tim Rollins & K. Lorna Simpson, Henry Ossawa Tanner, Alma Thomas, Bill Traylor, James Vanderzee, Kara Walker, Carrie Mae Weems, Kehinde Wiley, Ernest C.

Withers, Purvis Young, and Memphis artists George Hunt, Brenda Joysmith, TWINS (Jerry & Terry Lynn), Jared Small, Danny Broadway, Anthony Lee, Michael Rodgers, Dewitt Jordan, Kiersten Williams, Hattie Childress, Luther Hampton, Edwin Jeffrey, and Hawkins Bolden. Committed to the Image: Contemporary Black Photographers. Brooklyn: Museum of Art in association with London: Merrell, 2001. Excellent quality b&w and color illus.

Texts by Clyde Taylor and Deba P. Published to accompany an exhibition at the Brooklyn Museum of Art.

Includes 94 contemporary African American photographers who live and work in the United State, each represented by several images. Artists included: Salimah Ali, Jules Allen, Anthony Barboza, Ronald Barboza, Hugh Bell, Donald L.

Bernard, Kwame Brathwaite, Nathaniel Burkins, Keith Calhoun, Don Camp, Ron Campbell, Howard T. Cash, Albert Chong, Barron Claiborne, Carl Clark, Linda Day Clark, Wayne Clarke, Jim Collier, Kerry Stuart Coppin, Adger W. Cowans, Renée Cox, Gerald Cyrus, Martin Dixon, Sulaiman Ellison, Mfon (Mmekutmfon) Essien, Delphine A. Fennar, Collette Fournier, Omar Francis, Roland L. Gaskin, Bill Gaskins, Tony Gleaton, Faith Goodin, Lonnie Graham, Todd Gray, Bob Greene, C. Griffin, Inge Hardison, Joe Harris, Art Harrison, Leroy W. Jackson, Leslie Jean-Bart, Jason Miccolo Johnson, Omar Kharem, Gary Jackson Kirksey, Andrea Davis Kronlund, Fern Logan, Lauri Lyons, Stephen Marc, Charles Martin, Steve J. Martin, Chandra McCormick, Willie Middlebrook, Cheryl Miller, Jeanne Moutoussamy-Ashe, Ozier Muhammad, Marilyn Nance, Oggi Ogburn, Gordon Parks, Toni Parks, John Pinderhughes, Carl Pope, Jr. Herbert Randall, Eli Reed, Vernon Reid, Orville Robertson, Herb Robinson, Richard Howard Rose, Jeffery A. Salter, Juma Santos, Jeffrey Henson Scales, Keisha Scarville, Accra Shepp, Coreen Simpson, Beuford Smith, Jamyl Oboong Smith, Chuck Stewart, Frank Stewart, Gerald Straw, Bruce W. Talamon, Ron Tarver, Shawn W. Walker, Carrie Mae Weems, Edward West, Cynthia Wiggins, Budd Williams, Ernest C. Withers, Suné Woods, Mel Wright, Gene Young. Ogden Museum of Southern Art, University of New Orleans. Group photography exhibition including over 50 photographers. Included: Gordon Parks and Ernest C.

Traveled to: Krannert Art Museum, September 5-November 2, 2003, and other venues. African Americans in the Visual Arts. New York: Facts on File, 2003.

50 b&w photos of some artists, brief 2-page bibliog. Part of the A to Z of African Americans series.

Lists over 170 visual artists (including 18 photographers) and 22 filmmakers with brief biographies and token bibliog. An erratic selection, far less complete than the St. James Guide to Black Artists, and inexplicably leaving out over 250 artists of obvious historic importance for ex. Harleston, Grafton Tyler Brown, Charles Ethan Porter, Wadsworth Jarrell, John Outterbridge, Noah Purifoy, William Majors, Camille Billops, Whitfield Lovell, Al Loving, Ed Clark, John T.

Scott, Maren Hassinger, Lorraine O'Grady, Winnie Owens-Hart, Adrienne Hoard, Oliver Jackson, Frederick Eversley, Glenn Ligon, Sam Middleton, Ed Hamilton, Pat Ward Williams, etc. And omitting a generation of well-established contemporary artists who emerged during the late 70s-90s. Note: a newly revised edition of 2012 (ten pages longer) has not rendered it a worthy reference work on this topic.

8vo (25 com), laminated papered boards. Black Art and Culture in the 20th Century. New York: Thames and Hudson, 1997. (including 31 in color), biog.

Black Art: A Cultural History. London: Thames & Hudson, 2002. Including 39 in color, biog.

Revised and slightly enlarged from 1997 edition. Cutting a Figure: Fashioning Black Portraiture.

Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2008. (43 in color), notes, bibliog. Substantial chapter devoted to Barkley L. Hendricks; discussion of the self-portrait photographs of Lyle Ashton Harris and Renée Cox; extensive discussion of African American fashion model Donyale Luna, and brief mention of nearly 70 other African and African American artists. 8vo 25 x 23 cm. Menschel Photography Gallery, Syracuse University. Includes: Gordon Parks and Ernest Withers.

Howard University Gallery of Art. Mixing Metaphors: The Aesthetic, the Social and the Political in African American Art. Curated by Deborah Willis - a selection from the Bank of America collection. 94 photographs, paintings, prints, drawings, sculpture and mixed media executed by 37 artists ranging from range from photographers Ernest C. Withers, Robert Sengstacke, Jamel Shabazz, Lorna Simpson, Chuck Stewart, Gordon Parks, Dawoud Bey, Carrie Mae Weems, and James VanDerZee to Henry Clay Anderson, Benny Andrews, Romare Bearden, John Biggers, Willie Birch, Beverly Buchanan, Walter Cade, Kevin E.

Cole, Robert Colescott, Allan Rohan Crite, Allan Edmunds, Lawrence Finney, Sam Gilliam, Earlie Hudnall, Margo Humphrey, Jacob Lawrence. Willie Little, Juan Logan, Whitfield Lovell, Julie Mehretu, Martin Puryear, Faith Ringgold, Mario A.

Robinson, Raymond Saunders, Leo Twiggs, James W. Traveled to: The Jimmy Carter Presidential Library & Museum, Atlanta, GA, March 19-July 31, 2011.

Visualizing Political Struggle: Civil Rights Era Photography. In: Holloway, David and John Beck, eds. American Visual Cultures:166-173, 4 b&w illus. A survey of how Civil Rights era photography aroused public opinion and informed social consciousness, that at least mentions in passing a small roster of black photographers: Roy DeCarava, Jonathan Eubanks, Benedict Fernandez, Bob Fletcher, Jack T. Hickman, Bert Miles, Gordon Parks, Richard Saunders, Moneta Sleet, Jr. Beuford Smith, Elaine Tomlin, Cecil Williams, and Ernest Withers.

8vo 9.7 x 6.7 in. The most comprehensive list of Black photographers to date, with brief biographical entries on many artists and a few bibliographical entries on approximately half of the hundreds of names. Artists discussed include: Salimah Ali, Omobowale Ayorinde, J.

Edward Bailey, III, Anthony Barboza, Donnamarie Barnes, Vanessa Barnes Hillian, Fay D. Bellamy, Lisa Bellamy, Dawoud Bey, Hart Leroy Bibbs, Bonnie Brisset, Barbara Brown, Lisa Brown, Millie Burns, Muriel Agatha Fortune Bush, Cynthia D. Cole, Juanita Cole, Cary Beth Cryor, Tere L. Cuesta, Fikisha Cumbo, Phyllis Cunningham, Pat Davis, Carmen DeJesus, Lydia Ann Douglas, Barbara Dumetz, Joan Eda, Sharon Farmer, Phoebe Farris, Valeria "Mikki" Ferrill, Collette V.

Freeman, Rennie George, Bernadette F. Gibson, Anthony Gleaton, Dorothy Gloster, Lydia Hale-Hammond, Gail Adelle Hansberry, Inge Hardison, Teenie Harris, Madeleine Hill, Zebonia Hood, Vera Jackson, Louise Jefferson, Michelle M. Jeffries, Brent Jones, Brian V. Jones, Julia Jones, Kenneth G.

Jones, Leah Jaynes Karp, Irene C. Kellogg, Lucius King, Romulo Lachatanere, Allie Sharon Larkin, George Larkins, Archy La Salle, Abe C. Lavalais, Joyce Lee, Sa'Longo J. Lewis, Harvey James Lewis, Matthew Lewis, Roy Lewis, Fern Logan, Edie Lynch, Peter Magubane, Jimmie Mannas, Louise Martin, Mickey Mathis, Carroll T. Maynard, Rhashidah Elaine McNeill, Marlene Montoute, Michelle Morgan, Jeanne Moutoussamy-Ashe, Marilyn Nance, Yvonne Payne, Patricia Phipps, Ellen Queen, Phillda Ragland, Arkili-Casundria Ramsess, Odetta Rogers, Veronica Saddler, Lloyd Saunders, Cheryl Shackelton, Victoria Simmons, Coreen Simpson, Lorna Simpson, Clarissa T.

Sligh, Ming Smith, Toni Smith, Charlynn Spencer Pyne, Jo Moore Stewart, Celeste P. Stokes, Elisabeth Sunday, Elaine Tomlin, Sandra Turner-Bond, Jacqueline La Vetta Van Sertima, Dixie Vereen, William Onikwa Wallace, Sharon Watson-Mauro, Carrie Mae Weems, Dolores West, Judith C. White, Elizabeth "Tex" Williams, Lucy Williams, Pat Ward Williams, Deborah Willis, Carol R.

Wilson, Jonni Mae Wingard, Ernest Withers, and many, many others. Not all listed in this description, but all individual photographers are cross-listed.

Large stout 4to, pictorial boards, no d. Posing Beauty: African American Images from the 1890s to the Present. Includes: Ifétayo Abdus-Salam, James Lattimer Allen, Kwaku Alston, Henry Clay Anderson, Thomas Askew, Anthony Barboza, Jean-Michel Basquiat, Josephine Baker, Cornelius Battey, James Brown, Renée Cox, Mansita Diawara, Lola Flash, Daniel Freeman, Joy Gregory, Charles (Teenie) Harris, Lyle Ashton Harris, Alex Harsley, Terrence Jennings, Marian Jones, Seydou Keita, Lauren Kelley, Harlee Little, Robert H. McNeill, white photojournalist Wayne F. Mosley, Jeanne Moutoussamy-Ashe, David "Oggi" Ogburn, J.

Okhai Ojeikere, Gordon Parks, Prentiss H. Polk, Sheila Pree Bright, Eli Reed, Richard S.

Roberts, Jeffrey Scales, Addison Scurlock, Robert Sengstacke, Jamel Shabazz, Malick Sidibé, Coreen Simpson, Lorna Simpson, Bayeté Ross Smith, Hank Willis Thomas, Mickalene Thomas, Lewis Watts, Carrie Mae Weems, Wendel A. White, Carla Williams, Ernest C. Withers, Lauren Woods, et al. Published in conjunction with exhibition of the same title at Gulf & Western, New York, NY; Tisch School of the Arts, New York University, New York, August 27-October 18, 2009; Art Gallery of Hamilton, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, January 16-May 9, 2010; Taubman Museum, Roanoke, VA, June 11-August 22, 2010; Williams College Museum of Art, Williamstown, MA, September 11-November 21, 2010; Newark Museum, Newark, NJ, February 2-May 8, 2011; USC Fisher Museum of Art, Los Angeles, September 7-December 3, 2011; Everhart Museum, Scranton, PA, February 2-April 1, 2012; Figge Museum of Art, Davenport, IA, September 8-November 3, 2012; The College of Wooster Art Museum, Wooster, OH, January 15-March 3, 2013; Spelman College, Atlanta, GA, September 5-December 7, 2013; Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, April 26-July 27, 2014, and many other venues.

4to 12.4 x 9.3 in. Reflections in Black: A History of Black Photographers 1840 to the Present. 81 color plates, 487 b&w illus. Published to accompany the three-part traveling exhibition organized by the Smithsonian Institution. Important gathering of photographs of Black subjects by African American photographers from mid-nineteenth century through the present (roughly half from 1980s and 90s) by the pre-eminent historian of this subject.

Photographers include: O'Neal Abel, Salima Ali, James Lattimer Allen, Winifred Hall Allen, Amalia Amaki, Linda L. Ashton, Thomas Askew, John B. Bailey, James Presley Ball, Sr.

Thomas Ball, Anthony Barboza, Cornelius M. Battey, Anthony Beale, Arthur P. Bedou, Donald Bernard, Dawoud Bey, Howard Bingham, Caroll Parrott Blue, Terry Boddie, Rick Bolton, St.

Calhoun, Dennis Callwood, Don Camp, Roland Charles, Albert Chong, Carl Clark, Linda Day Clark, Allen Edward Cole, Florestine Perrault Collins, Herbert Collins, Adger Cowans, Renée Cox, Cary Beth Cryor, Steven Cummings, Gerald G. Daniel Dawson, Roy DeCarava, Doris Derby, Stephanie Dinkins, Lou Draper, George Durr, Nekisha Durrett, Edward (Eddie) Eleha, Darrel Ellis, Jonathan Eubanks, Delphine A. Fawundu, Alfred Fayemi, Jeffrey Fearing, Joe Flowers, Collette Fournier, Jack T.

Franklin, Elnora Frazier, Daniel Freeman, Roland L. Freeman, King Daniel Ganaway, Bill Gaskins, Glenalvin Goodridge, Wallace Goodridge, William Goodridge, Bob Gore, Lonnie Graham, Todd Gray, Camille Gustus, Robert Haggins, Austin Hansen, Edwin Harleston, Elise Forrest Harleston, Charles "Teenie" Harris, Doug Harris, Joe Harris, Lyle Ashton Harris, Thomas Allen Harris, Lucius Henderson, Craig Herndon, Leroy Henderson, Calvin Hicks, Chester Higgins, Jr.

Milton Hinton, Raymond Holman, Earlie Hudnall, Jr. Curtis Humphrey, Reginald Jackson, Chris Johnson, Brent Jones, Kenneth George Jones, Lou Jones, Benny Joseph, Kamoinge Workshop, Perry A. Kelly, Roshini Kempadoo, Winston Kennedy, Keba Konte, Andree Lambertson, Bill Lathan, Carl E. Lindo, Harlee Little, Fern Logan, Stephen Marc, Lynn Marshall-Linnemeier, Charles Martin, Louise Ozell Martin, Chandra McCormick, Robert H.

McNeill, Bertrand Miles, Cheryl Miller, Robert (Bob) Moore, John W. Mosley, Jeanne Moutoussamy-Ashe, Ming Smith Murray (as Ming Smith), Mansa Mussa, Marilyn Nance, Sunny Nash, Constance Newman, David Ogburn, G.

Dwoyid Olmstead, Kambui Olujimi, Villard Paddio, Gordon Parks, D. Pearson, Moira Pernambuco, Bonnie Phillips, John Pinderhughes, P. Polk, Paul Poole, Carl R. Pope, Marion James Porter, Sheila Pree, Eli Reed, Richard Roberts, Wilhelmina Williams Roberts, Orville Robertson, Herb Robinson, Eugene Roquemore, Susan J.

Ross, Ken Royster, Jeffery St. Mary, Richard Saunders, Jeffrey Scales, Addison L. Sengstacke, Harry Shepherd, Accra Shepp, Carl Sidle, Coreen Simpson, Lorna Simpson, Moneta Sleet, Clarissa Sligh, Beuford Smith, Marvin Smith, Morgan Smith, Frank Stallings, Charles (Chuck) Stewart, Gerald Straw, Ron Tarver, Hank Willis Thomas, Elaine Tomlin, June DeLairre Truesdale, Sheila Turner, Richard Aloysius Twine, James Vanderzee, Vincent Alan W. Walker, Augustus Washington, Lewis Watts, Carrie Mae Weems, Ellie Lee Weems, Jean Weisinger, Edward West, Wendel A. White, Cynthia Wiggins, Carlton Wilkinson, Carla Williams, Charles Williams, Milton Williams, Pat Ward Williams, William Earle Williams, Ernest C. Ernest Withers, a highly accomplished photographer, was born on August 7, 1922, in Memphis, Tennessee to parents Arthur Withers, a mailman and Pearl Withers, a school teacher, both from Marshall County, Mississippi. Withers collection, which spans over 60 years of the 20th century, provides a vivid account of the segregated South. It includes team shots of the Memphis Red Sox, a team from the historic Negro Baseball League, major moments from the Civil Rights movement, and the Beale Street music scene. His work has appeared in major publications including Time, Newsweek, and the New York Times. It has also been collected in four books: Let Us March On (1992), Pictures Tell the Story (2000), The Memphis Blues Again (2001), and Negro League Baseball (2005).

Ernest Withers interest in photography began in the eighth grade. After graduating from high school in 1941, he joined the Army at 17, where he attended the Army School of Photography.

During his time in the Army, Withers ran a freelance business photographing white soldiers in Saipan, a U. During this period Withers also worked for about three years as one of the first nine African-American police officers hired in Memphis. During the late 1940s, Withers furnished publicity shots for the Memphis Red Sox.

Without realizing it, Withers, with his images, documented the last years of the Negro League. The league would soon fold after Jackie Robinson desegregated professional baseball in 1947. During the 1950s and 1960s, Withers photographed many of the most important figures and events in the Civil Rights movement.

He traveled throughout the South with Dr. James Meredith, Medgar Evers, and other leaders of the Civil Rights movement. His now iconic images include Dr.

Riding the first desegregated bus in Montgomery in 1956, the photos of Dr. King on the balcony of the Lorraine Hotel just before and just after he was shot in 1968, and the 1968 Memphis Sanitation Workers Strike which led to the assassination of Dr.

The Withers photographs also captured the history of Beale Street which by the 1940s was an epicenter for American music. On Saturday nights he photographed musicians and their audiences. His work documented the emergence of Rock and Roll, and Rhythm and Blues, in the 1950s as they grew from traditional blues and gospel music.

One of his best known images here was of Elvis Presley and B. Ernest Withers passed away in Memphis on October 15, 2007 at the age of 85 from complications due to a stroke. He was survived by his wife, Dorothy, three sons, Joshua, Andrew Jerome, and Perry, all in Memphis, and a daughter, Rosalind, in West Palm Beach, Florida. Three years after his passing, a New York Times article revealed that Withers was briefly a paid FBI informant. He secretly provided the FBI photographs, biographical information, and scheduling details for Dr.

King and other notable leaders of the civil rights movement between 1968 and 1970. The Negro leagues were United States professional baseball leagues comprising teams predominantly made up of African Americans and, to a lesser extent, Latin Americans. The term may be used broadly to include professional black teams outside the leagues and it may be used narrowly for the seven relatively successful leagues beginning in 1920 that are sometimes termed "Negro Major Leagues". In 1885, the Cuban Giants formed the first black professional baseball team. [1] The first league, the National Colored Base Ball League, was organized strictly as a minor league[2] but failed in 1887 after only two weeks owing to low attendance.

After integration, the quality of the Negro leagues slowly deteriorated and the Negro American League of 1951 is generally considered the last major league season. The last professional club, the Indianapolis Clowns, operated as a humorous sideshow rather than competitively from the mid-1960s to the 1980s. History of the Negro leagues. Satchel Paige, Josh Gibson, and Gus Greenlee.

End of the Negro leagues. Colored and Negro World Series.

The Negro leagues and the Hall of Fame. During the formative years of black baseball, the term "colored" was the accepted usage when referring to African-Americans. References to black baseball prior to the 1930s are usually to "colored" leagues or teams, such as the Southern League of Colored Base Ballists (1886), the National Colored Base Ball League (1887) and the Eastern Colored League (1923), among others. By the 20s or 30s, the term "Negro" came into use which led to references to "Negro" leagues or teams. The black World Series was referred to as the Colored World Series from 1924 to 1927, and the Negro World Series from 1942 to 1948. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People petitioned the public to recognize a capital "N" in negro as a matter of respect for black people. By 1930, essentially every major US outlet had adopted "Negro" as the accepted term for blacks. [3] By about 1970, the term "Negro" had fallen into disfavor, but by then the Negro leagues were mere historic artifacts. Octavius Catto, black baseball pioneer.

Because black people were not being accepted into the major and minor baseball leagues due to racism in the United States, they formed their own teams and had made professional teams by the 1880s. [4] The first known baseball game between two black teams was held on November 15, 1859, in New York City.

The Henson Base Ball Club of Jamaica, Queens, defeated the Unknowns of Weeksville, Brooklyn, 54 to 43. Immediately after the end of the American Civil War in 1865 and during the Reconstruction period that followed, a black baseball scene formed in the East and Mid-Atlantic states. Comprising mainly ex-soldiers and promoted by some well-known black officers, teams such as the Jamaica Monitor Club, Albany Bachelors, Philadelphia Excelsiors and Chicago Uniques started playing each other and any other team that would play against them. By the end of the 1860s, the black baseball mecca was Philadelphia, which had an African-American population of 22,000. [6] Two former cricket players, James H.

Francis and Francis Wood, formed the Pythian Base Ball Club. They played in Camden, New Jersey, at the landing of the Federal Street Ferry, because it was difficult to get permits for black baseball games in the city. Octavius Catto, the promoter of the Pythians, decided to apply for membership in the National Association of Base Ball Players, normally a matter of sending delegates to the annual convention; beyond that, a formality. At the end of the 1867 season, the National Association of Baseball Players voted to exclude any club with a black player.

[1] In some ways Blackball thrived under segregation, with the few black teams of the day playing not only each other but white teams as well. Black teams earned the bulk of their income playing white independent'semipro' clubs. Bud Fowler, the first professional black baseball player with one of his teams, Western of Keokuk, Iowa. Baseball featuring African American players became professionalized by the 1870s.

[8] The first known professional black baseball player was Bud Fowler, who appeared in a handful of games with a Chelsea, Massachusetts club in April 1878 and then pitched for the Lynn, Massachusetts team in the International Association. [9] Moses Fleetwood Walker and his brother, Welday Wilberforce Walker, were the first two black players in the major leagues. They both played for the 1884 Toledo Blue Stockings in the American Association. [10] Then in 1886 second baseman Frank Grant joined the Buffalo Bisons of the International League, the strongest minor league, and hit. 340, third highest in the league.

Several other black American players joined the International League the following season, including pitchers George Stovey and Robert Higgins, but 1888 was the last season blacks were permitted in that or any other high minor league. Moses Fleetwood Walker, possibly the first African American major league baseball player. The first nationally known black professional baseball team was founded in 1885 when three clubs, the Keystone Athletics of Philadelphia, the Orions of Philadelphia, and the Manhattans of Washington, D. Merged to form the Cuban Giants. The success of the Cubans led to the creation of the first recognized "Negro league" in 1887the National Colored Base Ball League.

It was organized strictly as a minor league[2] and founded with six teams: Baltimore Lord Baltimores, Boston Resolutes, Louisville Falls Citys, New York Gorhams, Philadelphia Pythians, and Pittsburgh Keystones. Two more joined before the season but never played a game, the Cincinnati Browns and Washington Capital Cities. The league, led by Walter S.

Brown of Pittsburgh, applied for and was granted official minor league status and thus "protection" under the major league-led National Agreement. This move prevented any team in organized baseball from signing any of the NCBBL players, which also locked the players to their particular teams within the league. The reserve clause would have tied the players to their clubs from season to season but the NCBBL failed. One month into the season, the Resolutes folded.

A week later, only three teams were left. Because the original Cuban Giants were a popular and business success, many similarly named teams came into existenceincluding the Cuban X-Giants, a splinter and a powerhouse around 1900; the Genuine Cuban Giants, the renamed Cuban Giants, the Columbia Giants, the Brooklyn Royal Giants, and so on. The early "Cuban" teams were all composed of African Americans rather than Cubans; the purpose was to increase their acceptance with white patrons as Cuba was on very friendly terms with the US during those years. Beginning in 1899 several Cuban baseball teams played in North America, including the All Cubans, the Cuban Stars (West), the Cuban Stars (East), and the New York Cubans.

Some of them included white Cuban players and some were Negro Leagues members. The few players on the white minor league teams were constantly dodging verbal and physical abuse from both competitors and fans. Then the Compromise of 1877 removed the remaining obstacles from the South's enacting the Jim Crow laws. To make matters worse, on July 14, 1887, Cap Anson's Chicago White Stockings were scheduled to play the Newark Giants of the International League, which had Fleet Walker and George Stovey on its roster. After Anson marched his team onto the field, military style as was his custom, he demanded that the blacks not play.

Newark capitulated, and later that same day, league owners voted to refuse future contracts to blacks, citing the "hazards" imposed by such athletes. In 1888, the Middle States League was formed and it admitted two all-black teams to its otherwise all-white league, the Cuban Giants and their arch-rivals, the New York Gorhams. Despite the animosity between the two clubs, they managed to form a traveling team, the Colored All Americans.

Chicago Union Giants in 1905. Also in 1888, Frank Leland got some of Chicago's black businessmen to sponsor the black amateur Union Base Ball Club. Through Chicago's city government, Leland obtained a permit and lease to play at the South Side Park, a 5,000 seat facility.

Eventually his team went pro and became the Chicago Unions. After his stint with the Gorhams, Bud Fowler caught on with a team out of Findlay, Ohio.

While his team was playing in Adrian, Michigan, Fowler was persuaded by two white local businessmen, L. Hoch and Rolla Taylor to help them start a team financed by the Page Woven Wire Fence Company, the Page Fence Giants. The Page Fence Giants went on to become a powerhouse team that had no home field.

Barnstorming through the Midwest, they would play all comers. Their success became the prototype for black baseball for years to come. After the 1898 season, the Page Fence Giants were forced to fold because of finances. Garrett, a black businessman in Chicago, and John W. Patterson, the left fielder for the Page Fence Giants, reformed the team under the name of the Columbia Giants. In 1901 the Giants folded because of a lack of a place to play. Leland bought the Giants in 1905 and merged it with his Unions (despite the fact that not a single Giant player ended up on the roster), and named them the Leland Giants. The Philadelphia Giants, owned by Walter Schlichter, a white businessman, rose to prominence in 1903 when they lost to the Cuban X-Giants in their version of the "Colored Championship". Leading the way for the Cubans was a young pitcher by the name of Andrew "Rube" Foster. The following season, Schlichter, in the finest blackball tradition, hired Foster away from the Cubans and beat them in their 1904 rematch.

Philadelphia remained on top of the blackball world until Foster left the team in 1907 to play and manage the Leland Giants (Frank Leland renamed his Chicago Union Giants the Leland Giants in 1905). Around the same time, Nat Strong, a white businessman, started using his ownership of baseball fields in the New York City area to become the leading promoter of blackball on the East coast. Just about any game played in New York, Strong would get a cut. Strong eventually used his leverage to almost put the Brooklyn Royal Giants out of business, and then he bought the club and turned it into a barnstorming team.

When Foster joined the Leland Giants, he demanded that he be put in charge of not only the on-field activities but the bookings as well. Foster immediately turned the Giants into the team to beat. He indoctrinated them to take the extra base, to play hit and run on nearly every pitch, and to rattle the opposing pitcher by taking them deep into the count. He studied the mechanics of his pitchers and could spot the smallest flaw, turning his average pitchers into learned craftsmen. Foster also was able to turn around the business end of the team as well, by demanding and getting 40 percent of the gate instead of the 10 percent that Frank Leland was getting. By the end of the 1909, Foster demanded that Leland step back from all baseball operations or he (Foster) would leave. When Leland would not give up complete control, Foster quit, and in a heated court battle, got to keep the rights to the Leland Giants' name.

Leland took the players and started a new team named the Chicago Giants, while Foster took the Leland Giants and started to encroach on Nat Strong's territory. As early as 1910, Foster started talking about reviving the concept of an all-black league. The one thing he was insistent upon was that black teams should be owned by black men.

This put him in direct competition with Strong. After 1910, Foster renamed his team the Chicago American Giants to appeal to a larger fan base.

During the same year, J. Wilkinson started the All Nations traveling team. The All Nations team would eventually become one of the best-known and popular teams of the Negro leagues, the Kansas City Monarchs. On April 6, 1917, the United States entered World War I.

Manpower needed by the defense plants and industry accelerated the migration of blacks from the South to the North. By the end of the war in 1919, Foster was again ready to start a Negro baseball league. On February 13 and 14, 1920, talks were held in Kansas City, Missouri that established the Negro National League and its governing body the National Association of Colored Professional Base Ball Clubs.

[15] The league was initially composed of eight teams: Chicago American Giants, Chicago Giants, Cuban Stars, Dayton Marcos, Detroit Stars, Indianapolis ABC's, Kansas City Monarchs and St. [15] Foster, as booking agent of the league, took a five percent cut of all gate receipts.

On May 2, 1920, the Indianapolis ABCs beat the Chicago American Giants (42) in the first game played in the inaugural season of the Negro National League, played at Washington Park in Indianapolis. [16] But, because of the Chicago Race Riot of 1919, the National Guard still occupied the Giants' home field, Schorling's Park (formerly South Side Park).

This forced Foster to cancel all the Giants' home games for almost a month and threatened to become a huge embarrassment for the league. On March 2, 1920 the Negro Southern League was founded in Atlanta, Georgia.

[17] In 1921, the Negro Southern League joined Foster's National Association of Colored Professional Base Ball Clubs. As a dues-paying member of the association, it received the same protection from raiding parties as any team in the Negro National League. Foster then admitted John Connors' Atlantic City Bacharach Giants as an associate member to move further into Nat Strong's territory. Connors, wanting to return the favor of helping him against Strong, raided Ed Bolden's Hilldale Daisies team. Bolden saw little choice but to team up with Foster's nemesis, Nat Strong. Within days of calling a truce with Strong, Bolden made an about-face and signed up as an associate member of Foster's Negro National League.

On December 16, 1922, Bolden once again shifted sides and, with Strong, formed the Eastern Colored League as an alternative to Foster's Negro National League, which started with six teams: Atlantic City Bacharach Giants, Baltimore Black Sox, Brooklyn Royal Giants, New York Cuban Stars, Hilldale, and New York Lincoln Giants. [18] The National League was having trouble maintaining continuity among its franchises: three teams folded and had to be replaced after the 1921 season, two others after the 1922 season, and two more after the 1923 season.

Foster replaced the defunct teams, sometimes promoting whole teams from the Negro Southern League into the NNL. Finally Foster and Bolden met and agreed to an annual Negro League World Series beginning in 1924.

The two opposing teams line up at the 1924 Colored World Series. Louis Stars come of age in the Negro National League. They finished in second place during the second half of the year due in large part to their pitcher turned center fielder, Cool Papa Bell, and their shortstop, Willie Wells.

A gas leak in his home nearly asphyxiated Rube Foster in 1926, and his increasingly erratic behavior led to him being committed to an asylum a year later. While Foster was out of the picture, the owners of the National League elected William C. Hueston as new league president.

In 1927, Ed Bolden suffered a similar fate as Foster, by committing himself to a hospital because the pressure was too great. The Eastern League folded shortly after that, marking the end of the Negro League World Series between the NNL and the ECL. After the Eastern League folded following the 1927 season, a new eastern league, the American Negro League, was formed to replace it. The makeup of the new ANL was nearly the same as the Eastern League, the exception being that the Homestead Grays joined in place of the now-defunct Brooklyn Royal Giants. The ANL lasted just one season.

In the face of harder economic times, the Negro National League folded after the 1931 season. Some of its teams joined the only Negro league then left, the Negro Southern League. On March 26, 1932 the Chicago Defender announced the end of Negro National League. Just as Negro league baseball seemed to be at its lowest point and was about to fade into history, along came Cumberland Posey and his Homestead Grays.

Posey, Charlie Walker, John Roesnik, George Rossiter, John Drew, Lloyd Thompson, and L. Williams got together in January 1932 and founded the East-West League. Eight cities were included in the new league: Pittsburgh, Philadelphia, Detroit, Baltimore, Cleveland, Newark, New York, and Washington, D. By June the Wolves had disintegrated and all the rest of the teams, except for the Grays, were beyond help, so Posey had to terminate the league. On August 6, 1931, Satchel Paige made his first appearance as a Crawford. On opening day, April 30, 1932, the pitcher-catcher battery was made up of the two most marketable icons in all of black baseball: Satchel Paige and Josh Gibson.

In 1933, Greenlee, riding the popularity of his Crawfords, became the next man to start a Negro league. In February 1933, Greenlee and delegates from six other teams met at Greenlee's Crawford Grill to ratify the constitution of the National Organization of Professional Baseball Clubs. The name of the new league was the same as the old league Negro National League which had disbanded a year earlier in 1932.

[21] The members of the new league were the Pittsburgh Crawfords, Columbus Blue Birds, Indianapolis ABCs, Baltimore Black Sox, Brooklyn Royal Giants, Cole's American Giants (formerly the Chicago American Giants) and Nashville Elite Giants. Greenlee also came up with the idea to duplicate the Major League Baseball All-Star Game, except, unlike the big league method in which the sportswriters chose the players, the fans voted for the participants. The first game, known as the East-West All-Star Game, was held September 10, 1933, at Comiskey Park in Chicago before a crowd of 20,000. With the Japanese Attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, the United States was thrust into World War II. Remembering World War I, black America vowed it would not be shut out of the beneficial effects of a major war effort: economic boom and social unification.

Just like the major leagues, the Negro leagues saw many stars miss one or more seasons while fighting overseas. While many players were over 30 and considered "too old" for service, Monte Irvin, Larry Doby and Leon Day of Newark; Ford Smith, Hank Thompson, Joe Greene, Willard Brown and Buck O'Neil of Kansas City; Lyman Bostock of Birmingham; and Lick Carlisle and Howard Easterling of Homestead all served. [23] But the white majors were barely recognizable, while the Negro leagues reached their highest plateau.

Business was so good that promoter Abe Saperstein (famous for the Harlem Globetrotters) started a new circuit, the Negro Midwest League, a minor league similar to the Negro Southern League. The Negro World Series was revived in 1942, this time pitting the winners of the eastern Negro National League and midwestern Negro American League. It continued through 1948 with the NNL winning four championships and the NAL three. In 1946, Saperstein partnered with Jesse Owens to form another Negro League, the West Coast Baseball Association (WCBA); Saperstein was league president and Owens was vice-president and the owner of the league's Portland (Oregon) Rosebuds franchise.

[24] The WCBA disbanded after only two months. Landis, the first Commissioner of Major League Baseball, was an intractable opponent of integrating the white majors. During his quarter-century tenure, he blocked all attempts at integrating the game.

After Landis' death in 1944, Happy Chandler was named his successor. Chandler was open to integrating the game, even at the risk of losing his job as Commissioner. He later said in his biography that he could not, in good conscience, tell black players they couldn't play baseball with whites when they'd fought for their country.

In March 1945, the white majors created the Major League Committee on Baseball Integration. Its members included Joseph P.

Rainey, Larry MacPhail and Branch Rickey. Because MacPhail, who was an outspoken critic of integration, kept stalling, the committee never met. His list was eventually narrowed down to three: Roy Campanella, Don Newcombe and Jackie Robinson.

On August 28, 1945, Jackie Robinson met with Rickey in Brooklyn, where Rickey gave Robinson a "test" by berating him and shouting racial epithets that Robinson would hear from day one in the white game. Having passed the test, how?

Robinson signed the contract which stipulated that from then on, Robinson had no "written or moral obligations"[26] to any other club. By the inclusion of this clause, precedent was set that would raze the Negro leagues as a functional commercial enterprise. To throw off the press and keep his intentions hidden, Rickey got heavily involved in Gus Greenlee's newest foray into black baseball, the United States League. Greenlee started the league in 1945 as a way to get back at the owners of the Negro National League teams for throwing him out. Rickey saw the opportunity as a way to convince people that he was interested in cleaning up blackball, not integrating it. In midsummer 1945, Rickey, almost ready with his Robinson plan, pulled out of the league. The league folded after the end of the 1946 season. Pressured by civil rights groups, the Fair Employment Practices Act was passed by the New York State Legislature in 1945. This followed the passing of the Quinn-Ives Act banning discrimination in hiring. At the same time, NYC Mayor La Guardia formed the Mayor's Commission on Baseball to study integration of the major leagues. All this led to Rickey announcing the signing of Robinson much earlier than he would have liked. On October 23, 1945, Montreal Royals president Hector Racine announced that, We are signing this boy. Early in 1946, Rickey signed four more black players, Campanella, Newcombe, John Wright and Roy Partlow, this time with much less fanfare.

After the integration of the major leagues in 1947, marked by the appearance of Jackie Robinson with the Brooklyn Dodgers that April, interest in Negro league baseball waned. Black players who were regarded as prospects were signed by major league teams, often without regard for any contracts that might have been signed with Negro league clubs. Negro league owners who complained about this practice were in a no-win situation: they could not protect their own interests without seeming to interfere with the advancement of players to the majors. By 1948, the Dodgers, along with Veeck's Cleveland Indians had integrated. The Negro leagues also "integrated" around the same time, as Eddie Klep became the first white man to play for the Cleveland Buckeyes during the 1946 season.

These moves came despite strong opposition from the owners; Rickey was the only one of the 16 owners to support integrating the sport in January 1947. Chandler's decision to overrule them may have been a factor in his ouster in 1951 in favor of Ford Frick.

Some proposals were floated to bring the Negro leagues into "organized baseball" as developmental leagues for black players, but that was recognized as contrary to the goal of full integration. So the Negro leagues, once among the largest and most prosperous black-owned business ventures, were allowed to fade into oblivion. First a trickle and then a flood of players signed with Major League Baseball teams. Most signed minor league contracts and many languished, shuttled from one bush league team to another despite their success at that level. The Negro National League folded after the 1948 season when the Grays withdrew to resume barnstorming, the Eagles moved to Houston, Texas, and the New York Black Yankees folded.

So the Negro American League was the only "major" Negro League operating in 1949. Within two years it had been reduced to minor league caliber and it played its last game in 1958. The last All-Star game was held in 1962, and by 1966 the Indianapolis Clowns were the last Negro league team still playing. The Clowns continued to play exhibition games into the 1980s, but as a humorous sideshow rather than a competitive sport. While organized leagues were common in black baseball, there were only seven leagues that are considered to be of the top quality of play at the time of their existence.

None materialized prior to 1920 and by 1950, due to integration, they were in decline. Even though teams were league members, most still continued to barnstorm and play non-league games against local or semi-pro teams. Those games, sometimes approaching 100 per season, did not count in the official standings or statistics.

However, some teams were considered "associate" teams and games played against them did count, but an associate team held no place in the league standings. Negro National League (I), 192031. American Negro League, 1929; was created from some of the ECL teams but lasted just one season. East-West League, 1932; ceased operations midway through the season.

Negro Southern League, 1932; incorporated some teams from the NNL(I) and functioned for one year as a major league, was otherwise a minor league that played from 1920 into the 1940s. Negro National League (II), 193348. Negro American League, 193760 or so; after 1950, the league and its teams operated after a fashion, mostly as barnstorming units, but historians have a hard time deciding when the league actually came to an end. Main article: Negro World Series. See also: List of Negro league baseball champions. The NNL(I) and ECL champions met in a World Series, usually referred to as the "Colored World Series", from 1924 to 1927 (1924, 1925, 1926, 1927). The NNL(II) and NAL also met in a World Series, usually referred to as the "Negro World Series" from 1942 to 1948 (1942, 1943, 1944, 1945, 1946, 1947, 1948). Early professional leagues cannot be called major or minor. Until the twentieth century, not one completed even half of its planned season. Two leagues can be considered the prototypes for Negro league baseball. Southern League of Colored Base Ballists, 1886. National Colored Baseball League, 1887. Eventually, some teams were able to survive and even profit by barnstorming small towns and playing local semi-pro teams as well as league games. Two important leagues of this era are. International League of Independent Professional Base Ball Clubs, 1906. National Association of Colored Baseball Clubs of the United States and Cuba, 19071909. Early Negro leagues were unable to attract and retain top talent due to financial, logistical and contractual difficulties. Some early dominant teams did not join a league since they could pull in larger profits independently.

The early leagues were specifically structured as minor leagues. With the integration of Organized Baseball, beginning 1946, all leagues simply lost elite players to white leagues, and historians do not consider any Negro league "major" after 1950.

A number of leagues from the major-league era (post-1900) are recognized as Negro minor leagues. A general rule of thumb was leagues in the north were major while leagues in the south were minor, due mainly to population and economic disparities.

Below are some of the better-documented leagues. Negro Southern League (I), 19201936 considered a de facto major league in 1932 because it was the only league to play a full season schedule due to the Great Depression. Interstate League, 1926 and 1940 (mixed-race league). By default, leagues established after integration are considered minor league, as is the one of two 1940s majors that continued after 1950.

Also at this time, leagues began to appear in the west, just as in other sports, due to the post-War boom and improved transportation modes. Negro Southern League (II), 19451951. West Coast Negro Baseball Association, 1946.

East Texas Negro League, 1946. Negro American League, 19511960 considered a major league from 1937 until integration diminished the quality of play around 1950/51. Negro National Baseball Association, 1954. See also: 2006 Baseball Hall of Fame balloting and 1971 Baseball Hall of Fame balloting. In his Baseball Hall of Fame induction speech in 1966, Ted Williams made a strong plea for inclusion of Negro league stars in the Hall. After the publication of Robert Peterson's landmark book Only the Ball was White in 1970, the Hall of Fame found itself under renewed pressure to find a way to honor Negro league players who would have been in the Hall had they not been barred from the major leagues due to the color of their skin. At first, the Hall of Fame planned a "separate but equal" display, which would be similar to the Ford C. Frick Award for baseball commentators, in that this plan meant that the Negro league honorees would not be considered members of the Hall of Fame. This plan was criticized by the press, the fans and the players it was intended to honor, and Satchel Paige himself insisted that he would not accept anything less than full-fledged induction into the Hall of Fame.

The Hall relented and agreed to admit Negro league players on an equal basis with their Major League counterparts in 1971. A special Negro league committee selected Satchel Paige in 1971, followed by (in alphabetical order) Cool Papa Bell, Oscar Charleston, Martín Dihigo, Josh Gibson, Monte Irvin, Judy Johnson, Buck Leonard and John Henry Lloyd. Of the nine, only Irvin and Paige spent any time in the major leagues.

The Veterans Committee later selected Ray Dandridge, as well as choosing Rube Foster on the basis of meritorious service. Other members of the Hall who played in both the Negro leagues and Major League Baseball are Hank Aaron, Ernie Banks, Roy Campanella, Larry Doby, Willie Mays, and Jackie Robinson. Except for Doby, their play in the Negro leagues was a minor factor in their selection: Aaron, Banks, and Mays played in Negro leagues only briefly and after the leagues had declined with the migration of many black players to the integrated minor leagues; Campanella (1969) and Robinson (1962) were selected before the Hall began considering performance in the Negro leagues. From 1995 to 2001, the Hall made a renewed effort to honor luminaries from the Negro leagues, one each year. There were seven selections: Leon Day, Bill Foster, Bullet Rogan, Hilton Smith, Turkey Stearnes, Willie Wells, and Smokey Joe Williams. In February 2006, a committee of twelve baseball historians elected 17 more people from black baseball to the National Baseball Hall of Fame, twelve players and five executives. Ray Brown; Willard Brown; Andy Cooper; Biz Mackey; Mule Suttles; Cristóbal Torriente; Jud Wilson. Frank Grant; Pete Hill; José Méndez; Louis Santop; Ben Taylor.

Effa Manley; Alex Pompez; Cum Posey; J. Pre-Negro league executive, manager, player, and historian (1). Effa Manley, co-owner (with her husband Abe Manley) and business manager of the Newark Eagles (New Jersey) club in Negro National League, is the first woman elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame. The committee reviewed the careers of 29 Negro league and 10 Pre-Negro league candidates.

The list of 39 had been pared from a roster of 94 candidates by a five-member screening committee in November, 2005. The voting committee was chaired by Fay Vincent, Major League Baseball's eighth Commissioner and an Honorary Director of the National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum. Hank Aaron was the last Negro league player to hold a regular position in Major League Baseball. Minnie Miñoso was the last Negro league player to play in a Major League game when he appeared in two games for the Chicago White Sox in 1980.

Buck O'Neil was the most recent former Negro league player to appear in a professional game when he made two appearances (one for each team) in the Northern League All-Star Game in 2006. On June 5, 2008, Major League Baseball held a special draft of the surviving Negro league players to acknowledge and rectify their exclusion from the major leagues on the basis of race. The idea of the special draft was conceived by Hall of Famer Dave Winfield.

[27] Each major league team drafted one player from the Negro leagues. Scott, Mule Miles, Lefty Bell, James "Red" Moore, Mack "The Knife" Pride and his brother Charley Pride (who went on to a legendary career in country music), were among the players selected. Also drafted, by the New York Yankees, was Emilio Navarro, who, at 102 years of age at the time of the draft, was believed to be the oldest living professional ballplayer. The Negro Leagues Baseball Museum is located in the 18th and Vine District in Kansas City, Missouri.

On July 17, 2010, the U. Postal Service issued a se-tenant pair of 44-cent U.

The stamps were formally issued at the Negro Leagues Baseball Museum, during the celebration of the museum's twentieth anniversary. [28][29] One of the stamps depicts Rube Foster. List of first black Major League Baseball players by team and date. List of Negro League baseball players.

List of Negro League baseball teams. Ted Williams Museum and Hitters Hall of Fame (including "The Negro Leagues" wing). The Soul of Baseball 2007 book by Joe Posnanski.

Toni Stone, Mamie Johnson, Connie Morgan (the only women to play in the leagues). Before Jackie Robinson joined the Brooklyn. Dodgers in 1947, breaking baseballs color barrier. He had played for the Kansas City Monarchs of the.

Since the 19th century, black- and. Brown-skinned ballplayers were banned from Major. A few players, such as Moses. Fleetwood Walker and John W. Played on white teams in the 1880s, but they were.

By 1890, racism and Jim Crow laws promoted. Baseball team owners made a gentlemans. Agreement not to hire any African-Americans. Black players formed their own teams.

Games with any team that would play with them. The 1900s, African-Americans had formed their own. In 1910, Andrew Rube Foster, a former player. And manager, became owner of the all-black Chicago. In 1920, he helped organize the.

He controlled all the operations from equipment to. Formed across the country, and many became the. Newark Eagles, was managed by Effa Manley, wife. She was committed to her players and kept the team. Operating from 1936 to 1948.

First woman inducted into the National Baseball Hall. Life in the Negro Leagues was not easy.

Struggled to make a profit. Long distances, often in broken-down buses. White ballplayers made three to four times more in. Black players were not allowed. To go to restaurants or hotels that served white.

Gas stations closed their restrooms to. But the players did not let these challenges. They played for the love of the game and.

Were determined to do their best. Negro League players showed great teamwork. And worked hard to impress the crowds. Developed an exciting style of play that was fast and. Players often stole bases and made opposing. The 1935 Pittsburgh Crawfords of the Negro Leagues pose for a photo in front of their team bus. Josh Gibson, Homestead Grays, 1929. Pitchers nervous with intimidating talk. They warmed up with an exercise called shadow. Players would throw and hit an imaginary ball.

Making close plays and diving catches. Spectators, it looked like they were using a real ball. There were many excellent players in the Negro. Leroy Satchel Paige was a natural athlete.

Who was primarily a pitcher. His career he had 300 shutouts and. A great hitter with 900 career home runs. Hit a ball more than 575 feet. Were later inducted into the National Baseball Hall of. Buck ONeil had a great career with the Kansas. He later became the first AfricanAmerican to coach a Major League team, the Chicago.

After he retired from baseball, he helped. Found the Negro Leagues Baseball. Museum in Kansas City, Missouri.

Depression and World War II. The color barrier by joining the. Brooklyn Dodgers in 1947, Major. League Baseball began to allow.

Black players to join their teams. Many Negro League teams lost. Their star players and went out.

Onthere are 35 players who. Played in the Negro Leagues.

Inducted in the National Baseball. Satchel Paige (left) and Buck ONeil (above), both of the. Below to research one of. Put together a brief report. On your findings and share.

Begin by locating a Negro League team for your report. Teams name, and research the following for your report. A brief history of the team, including how it began and ended. The teams best record, including the year.

A list of two or three of the teams best players, the years they. A brief description of any of the teams players inducted into the. National Baseball Hall of Fame. 1855 The first recorded baseball game between two black teams occurred on October 24, 1855.

According to the Newark Daily Mercury, the St. Johns team was beating the Union Clubs.

By a score of 10-2 at the end of two innings when the game was rained out. 1858 The National Association of Baseball Players is formed. 1860 The Colored Union Club of New York was defeated by a team from Weeksville (NY) at. Elysian Fields (Hoboken, NJ) by a score of 11-0 on September 28, 1860. 1865 Black baseball grows in popularity in the United States.

Organized black teams that played. In 1865 include: Albany Bachelors, Baltimore Hannibals, Camden Blue Skies, Chicago. Uniques, Detroit Rilatos, Harrisburg Monrovia, Jamaica (NY) Monitors, Philadelphia. Excelsiors, Philadelphia Pythians and Washington Mutuals. 1867 The National Association of Baseball Players votes to ban black players from their teams.

1867 The Philadelphia Excelsiors meet the Brooklyn Uniques in what is publicized as a Colored. Philadelphia wins the game by a score of 42-35. Colored championship game of record. 1868 The Philadelphia Pythians play the first recorded interracial game when they beat the City. Items (white team) by a score of 27-17. 1869 Philadelphia Pythians go undefeated for the second straight year. 1869 The Pythians (Philadelphia, PA) defeat the Uniques (Chicago, IL) by a score of 9-1 in a. Game that had been billed as the World Colored Championship. 1871 The Philadelphia Pythians apply for membership in the National Association of.

1871 Octavius Catto (Owner and Manager) of the Philadelphia Pythians is killed in race riots in. 1878 John Bud Fowler becomes the first black professional black ball player to play on an. Integrated team when he signs with Chelsea, Massachusetts in April of 1878.

Latter he pitched for the Lynn Live Oaks of the International Association as they defeat. Tommy Bond and the Boston Nationals by a score of 2-1. 1881 Moses Fleetwood Walker and his brother Weldy join the Oberlin College varsity baseball.

1883 Moses Fleetwood Walker signs with the Toledo Blue Stockings of the Northwestern. 1883 Cap Anson, star player of the Chicago White Stockings, refuses to play in an exhibition. Game against the Toledo Blue Stockings because they have a black player Moses. 1884 Moses Fleetwood Walker becomes the first African American ball player to play in the.

Major Leagues when the Toledo Blue Stockings move to the American Association. 1885 The Cuban Giants are formed by Frank P. Thompson, head waiter of the Argyle Hotel in. The Cuban Giants are considered the first professional black baseball team. 1886 Southern League of Colored Base Ballists is formed. This is the first professional all black. The league was made up of ten teams: Charleston Fultons. Florida Clippers (Jacksonville, FL), Georgia Champions of Atlanta, Jacksonville Athletics. Jacksonville Macedonians, Memphis Eclipses, Memphis Eurekas, New Orleans Unions. Savannah Broads and Savannah Lafayettes.

The league folded during its inaugural season. 1886 George Stovey signs with Jersey City of the Eastern league.

Stovey a pitcher goes 16-15 for. The season with a 1.13 ERA. 1886 Frank Grant starts the season with Meriden of the Eastern League and is batting.

He gets promoted to Buffalo of the International League. 344 batting average (third highest in the league). 1886 John Bud Fowler hits.

309 for Topeka of the Western League and leads the league in. 1887 League of Colored Baseball Clubs is formed. Teams that played in the league included. Baltimore Lord Baltimores, Boston Resolutes, Cincinnati Browns, Louisville Falls City.

New York Gorhams, Philadelphia Pythians, Pittsburgh Keystones, and Capital City Club of. The league folded 13 games into its first season. 1887 George Stovey establishes himself as one of the first black stars to play in organized ball. Stovey, pitcher for the Newark Little Giants of the Eastern League, compiled the following. Statistics for the 1887 season: 48 games pitched, 424 innings, 33-14 record led the league.

In wins and 2.46 ERA. 353 with a league leading 11 homeruns for Buffalo of the International. 1887 On July 14th Cap Anson, player-manager of the Chicago Blue Stockings announced that he.

Would not play in that days game Newark if George Stovey played. Stovey was sick and would not be in uniform. This event is credited with doing more to. Start segregation than anything else. 1887 The International League bans future contracts with black players. 1887 Future Negro League baseball historian Sol White hits. 371 for Wheeling of the Ohio State. 1888 Frank Grant (Buffalo) continues to dominate International League pitching by hitting. 1889 The Cuban Giants change their name to the New York Gorhams. 1889 Both the New York Gorhams and the Trenton Cuban Giants join the Middle States League. The Trenton Cuban Giants win the Middle States League championship with a 57-16. The New York Gorham 45-28.

616 finish in third place behind Harrisburg 61-20. The league title is taken away from the Cuban Giants when three Giants wins are.

1889 The New York Gorhams beat the Trenton Cuban Giants take both games of a two game. Series to claim the Colored Championship. 1890 Colored Monarchs of York (formerly the Cuban Giants) play in the all white Eastern. Interstate League and win the league championship. Colored Monarchs finished the season. With a record of 40-16.714 in league play and 88-27.765 in all games played. 1890 The International League bans the signing of African-American ball players. 1891 Frank Grant, George Stovey and Sol White play for the New York Big Gorhams. According Sol White the Big Gorhams finished the season with a record of 100-4. Sol White called the Big Gorhams team the best black ball club of the decade. Big Gorhams and the Cuban Giants disband.

1893 Cuban Giants are reformed and along with the Chicago Unions are two of the most. Dominate black baseball teams in the country. The Page Fence Giants were.

Formed by John Bud Fowler and Grant Homerun Johnson. They were based in Adrian. Michigan and travel the country in their own Pullman railroad car. 1895 John Bud Fowler and George Lefty Wilson leaves the Page Fence Giants and sign with.

Adrian of the white Michigan State League. Wilson goes 29-4 on the mound for the.

331 in his last year of professional baseball. 1896 The Plessey vs Ferguson case requiring separate but equal public facilities for blacks is. Upheld by the United States Supreme Court. The ruling firmly establishes the practice of.

Racial segregation throughout the United States. 1896 The Page Fence Giants and Cuban Giants play a fifteen game championship.

Series for the title of the best colored baseball team in the world. Won the series ten games to five for the Cuban Giants. 1896 Chicago Unions turn professional. 1897 Page Fence Giants are reputed to have won 82 consecutive ball games in route to a season. 1898 The Acme Colored Giants of Celeron (NY) are the last all black team of the 19th century.

To play in an otherwise all white league. The Colored Giants played in the Iron and Oil. 1899 Many of the stars (Charlie Grant, Homerun Johnson, Chappie Johnson and Bill Binga) of. The defunct Page Fence Giants sign with the Columbia Giants of Chicago. 1899 Cuban X Giants (champions of the East) played the Unions of Chicago champions of the.

Cubans defeat the Unions to claim the Colored Championship by winning nine of. 1899 Bill Galloway formerly of the Cuban Giants played 20 games for Woodstock of the. Galloway is considered as the last black player to play in white. 1900 There are at least five high-level professional black teams traveling the country. The Genuine Cuban Giants, Cuban X Giants, Chicago Unions, Columbia Giants and.

1900 Even though no play off was held, both the Cuban X Giants and Genuine Cuban Giants. Claim the title as Colored Champions. 1900 The Cuban X Giants become the first black team to travel to the Caribbean when they go to. Cuba to play a 15 game barnstorming schedule. The Cuban X Giants had a season record. Of 110-21 in the United States. They went 12-3 during their Cuban tour. 1900 The Cuban League opens its doors to black players. 1901 Frank Leland combines the Chicago Unions and the Columbia Giants teams to form the. 1901 John McGraw, Baltimore Orioles manager, attempts to sign black player Charlie Grant to.

Play in the American League by trying to pass him off as a full-blooded Cherokee Indian. By the name of Chief Tokahoma. 1901 Andrew Rube Foster joins the Chicago Union Giants s for his first season in professional. 1902 Newspaper men Harry Smith (Philadelphia Tribune) and Walter Schlichter Philadelphia. Item form the Philadelphia Giants.

Sol White is named the teams manager. 1903 Dan McClellan of the Philadelphia Giants becomes the first black pitcher to throw a perfect. Game when he beat Penn Park Athletic Club of York (Tri State League) on July 7, 1903.

1903 The Algona Brownies (IA) beat the Chicago Union Giants for the Western. 1903 Rube Foster defects to the Cuban X Giants. Foster claims to had 44 straight wins during the. 1903 Dan McClellan of the Cuban X Giants pitches a perfect game against York of the Tri-State. 1903 The Cuban X Giants with Rube Foster defeat the Philadelphia Giants five games to two.

Claim the title of Colored World Champions. Rube Foster goes 4-0 in the series. 1904 The Philadelphia Giants raid the Cuban X Giants and sign Rube Foster and Charlie Grant. 1904 The Philadelphia Giants finish the season with a record of 95-41-6.699 and are declared. The Colored World Champions after defeating the Cuban X giants in a three game playoff.

1905 Andrew Rube Foster of the Philadelphia Giants reportedly posts a 51-4 record for the. 1905 The Chicago Union Giants change their name to the Leland Giants after their owner Frank. They finish the season with a record of 112-20.

The Leland Giants reportedly had a. 48 game win streak during the season. 1905 The Philadelphia Royal Giants finish the season with a record of 134-21-3.1905 The Philadelphia Giants claim their second Colored World Championship in a row. Defeat the Brooklyn Royal Giants three straight games in the playoff series. 1905 Rube Foster of the Philadelphia Giants posts a reported record of 51-4 for the season.

During the season Foster also pitched a no-hitter against a team from Camden (NJ). 1905 The Cuban X Giants defeat the Brooklyn Dodgers (Major League) in Atlantic City by a. This is believed to be the first victory by a black team over a white Major.

1906 The Philadelphia Giants defeat the Cuban X Giants to claim the Negro Championship. Pete Hill leads the Giants attack with 28 hits in 62 at bats for a. Rube Foster (Giants) picks up three wins.

The Giants are awarded the International League. Of Independent Professional Baseball Clubs championship trophy.

1906 The Philadelphia Giants finish the season with an unofficial record of 134-21. Giants post a record of 110-10. 1907 Sol White publishes the History of Colored Baseball. 1908 The Colored World Championship series between the Philadelphia Giants and the. Chicago Leland Giants with Rube Foster ends in a tie with each team winning three. 1909 Newspaper reports credit Jose Mendez of the barnstorming Cuban Stars with a pitching. Record of 44-2 for the 1909 season. 1909 The Philadelphia Giants defeat the Chicago Leland Giants three games to one to claim the. 1910 The Leland Giants are virtually unbeatable as they post a won-loss record of 123-6. 1910 Rube Foster (Chicago Leland Giants) issues a challenge to any team that would play them. For the title of Colored World Champions.

Foster received no takers and the Leland Giants became self- proclaimed World. 1911 The Chicago American Giants are founded by Andrew Rube Foster. 1911 At the end of the regular season, the New York Age newspaper called for a play-off series. Between the New York Lincoln Giants, Brooklyn Royal Giants, New York Giants Major. League Baseball World Series Champions and the New York Yankees American.

No response to the New York Ages challenge was ever received. 1912 Dick Cannonball Redding of the Lincoln Giants pitched a perfect game against the. Cherokee Indians barnstorming team in their game that was played at Olympic Field. Redding struck out 14 in his 1-0 victory.

1912 Dick Cannonball Redding of the Lincoln Giants pitched what is believed to be the first. No-hitter between two Negro League teams.

Redding no-hit the Jose Mendez and the Cuban. Stars 1-0 in Atlantic City. 1912 Newspaper accounts credit Dick Cannonball Redding (Lincoln Giants) with a 43-12. Record for the 1912 season. The article also says that Redding pitched seven no-hitters.

1912 The New York Lincoln Giants behind the pitching of Smoky Joe Williams shut out a. Combined Major League team of New York Giants and New York Yankees by a score. 1913 In one 15 game series that was played in 20 days versus the Chicago American Giants. Smoky Joe Williams of the New York Lincoln Giants pitched in 11 games and had a record.

Of won-loss record of 7-2. 1913 Smoky Joe Williams and the New York Lincoln Giants defeat Grover Cleveland Alexander.

And the Philadelphia Phillies (National League) by a score of 9-2. 1914 On August 26th, Frank The Red Ant Wickware (Chicago American Giants) pitched a no. Hitter against the Indianapolis ABCs. After walking the lead off batter of the game, he was.

Perfect the rest of the game and recorded a 1-0 victory. 1914 Smoky Joe Williams pitched no-hitter against Portland of the Pacific Coast League.

1914 Smoky Joe Williams of the Chicago American Giants is credited with a record of 41-3 for. Wilkinsons All Nations barnstorming team plays an independent schedule throughout.

1915 Dizzy Dismukes (Indianapolis ABCs) pitches a no-hitter versus the Chicago Giants. 1915 Dick Whitworth of the Chicago American Giants pitches a 4-0 no-hitter against the. 1916 The Duval Giants from Jacksonville (FL) move north to Atlantic City (NJ) and become the. 1916 Jimmy Claxton is signed by the Oakland Oaks of the Pacific Coast League.

Of Claxtons revealed his African American and Native American heritage, Claxton is. 1916 Bill Gatewood of the St.

Louis Giants pitches a no-hitter against the Cuban Stars. 1916 The Indianapolis ABCs defeat the Chicago American Giants in a Western Playoff Series by. Winning four games to one for the American Giants. Indianapolis was led by Dizzy.

Dismukes who won three games. 1917 The 25th Infantry Regiment (Buffalo Soldiers) baseball team know as the wreckers gain. The team featured Wilber Bullet Rogan, Oscar Heavy Johnson. Lemuel Hawkins, Bob Fagin and Walter Dobie Moore. All five of these players would.

Go on to star in the Negro National league. 1917 The Chicago American Giants defeat the New York Lincoln Giants four games to three to. Claim the World Colored Championship.

1918 Numerous Negro League stars Oscar Charleston, Dizzy Dismukes, Dave Malarcher, Dick. Redding, Spottswood Poles, Louis Santop, Frank Wickware, Smoky Joe Williams etc. Drafted into the military during World War I. 1918 Bernardo Baro (Cuban Stars) pitches a 11-0 no-hitter versus the Indianapolis ABCs. 1919 Smoky Joe Williams (New York Lincoln Giants) and Dick Cannonball Redding Atlantic.

City Bacharach Giants both just back from World War I faced off against one another at. Redding pitched a two hitter and Williams pitched a no-hitter. Winning the game 1-0 when the winning run scored in the bottom of the 9th with one out. Williams called this the greatest game he ever pitched. Wilkinson forms the Kansas City Monarchs.

1920 Andrew Rube Foster, owner of the Chicago American Giants, organizes the Negro. The teams that played in the Negro National League during its. Inaugural season were the Chicago American Giants, Chicago Giants, Cuban Stars, Dayton.

Marcos, Detroit Stars, Indianapolis ABCs, Kansas City Monarchs and St. The Negro National League proves to be the first successful black professional league.

1920 The Negro Southern League begins play. Cities fielding teams for the inaugural season of.

The league were Atlanta, Birmingham, Chattanooga, Memphis, Nashville and New Orleans. 1920 On July 17th the Atlantic City Bacharach Giants played the New York Lincoln Giants at. Ebbets Field in Brooklyn (New York). This was the first game in which two Negro League. Teams played each other in a Major League stadium.

1920 Hilldale defeats the Brooklyn Royal Giants in a four game series two games to zero the. First two games of the series ended in a tie for Brooklyn to claim the Eastern Colored. 1920 The Chicago American Giants under Rube Foster win the Negro National League title. 1920 Knoxville the winner of the Negro Southern League with a record of 55-21.

Challenged the Chicago American Giants to a Negro League World Series, but no series. 1921 John Beckwith becomes the first player (black or white) to hit a homerun out of Redland. Field (home of the Cincinnati Reds).

1921 The Eastern Colored Championship Playoff Series ended with the Atlantic City Bacharach. Giants and Hilldale each team winning two games.

A tie breaker was never played. 1921 The Chicago American Giants win their second straight Negro National League title.

1921 The Chicago American Giants played a double championship series against the Atlantic. City Bacharach Giants and then Hilldale. The American Giants defeated the Bacharach.

Giants two games to one and then fell to Hilldale three games to two. 1921 The Kansas City Monarchs win both ends of doubleheader vs the Babe Ruth All Stars. 1922 Western League of Colored Baseball Clubs is formed. Cities represented in the league.

Include Independence, Oklahoma City, Omaha, St. Joseph, Topeka, Tulsa and Wichita.

They began operation on June 4, 1922 and folds by the end of the year. 1922 Hilldale pitcher Phil Cockrell threw a no-hitter against the Chicago American Giants on. August 19th at Schorling Park in Chicago. Hilldale won the game 5-0. 1922 The Chicago American Giants win their third straight Negro National League. 1922 The Chicago American Giants defeat the Atlantic City Bacharach Giants three games to. Two in a Colored Championship Series. 1923 Ed Bolden (Hilldale) and Nat Strong (Brooklyn Royal Giants) head up a group of owners. That form the Eastern Colored League (ECL). Teams that played in the ECL during its first. Season were the Bacharach Giants, Baltimore Black Sox, Brooklyn Royal Giants, Cuban. Stars (East), Hilldale and Lincoln Giants. 1923 Hilldale wins the Eastern Colored Leagues first championship. 1923 Jose Mendez (five innings) and Bullet Rogan (four innings) combine for a no-hitter against. 1923 The Kansas City Monarchs win their first Negro National League championship. Monarchs would go on to win Negro National League titles in 1924, 1925, 1926 and 1929. 1923 Kenesaw Mountain Landis, the Commissioner of Baseball, bans off-season games. Between Major League teams and black ball clubs. The result was that Major League.

Players formed their own all star teams to barnstorm against black teams. 1924 In an twelve inning exhibition game, Smoky Joe Williams of the Brooklyn Royal Giants. Struck out twenty-five (25) Brooklyn Bushwick batters. He struck out 11 of the first 12.

The game was played on March 30th at Dexter Park in the Queens (NY). 1924 John Henry Pop Lloyd of the Atlantic City Bacharach Giants gets eleven (11). Consecutive hits over one three game stretch. 1924 The first Negro League World Series is played. The Kansas City Monarchs who won the.

Negro National League championship played Hilldale who were the champions of the. The Kansas City Monarchs won the Negro League World Series.

By winning five games to four for Hilldale. 1925 Hilldale dominated the Kansas City Monarchs by winning five of the six games played to.

Give them the Negro League World Series title. 1926 Rube Foster (President and Founder of the Negro National League) is arrested for. A Chicago judge rules him to be insane and commits him to an. Asylum in Kankakee (IL) where he would remain until his death in December of 1930. 1926 Willie Foster, ace pitcher for the Chicago American Giants (Negro National League).

Reportedly has a 26 game winning streak during the season. 1926 The Kansas City Monarchs loose to the Chicago American Giants in the Negro National. The American Giants won five games and lost four.

1926 Claude Red Grier pitches 27 consecutive scoreless innings with out giving up a run. During this string he shut out the Cuban Stars, Brooklyn Royal Giants and Ocean City. 1926 Claude Red Grier of the Atlantic City Bacharach Giants pitches the first no-hitter in. Grier defeated the Chicago American Giants by a score of. 1926 The Chicago American Giants (Negro National League) defeated the Atlantic City.

Bacharach Giants (Eastern Colored League) to claim the Negro League World Series title. 1927 The Chicago American Giants defeated the Birmingham Black Barons in the Negro. National League Playoff Series then defeated the Atlantic City Bacharach Giants in the. 1927 Lonnie Goodwin, promoter and owner of the Philadelphia Royal Giants, takes the Royals. Giants on a tour of Japan after the conclusion of the California Winter League season.

Was the first time a Negro league team had ever traveled to the Far East. Went 23-0-1 on their tour of Japan. 1927 Luther Farrell of the Atlantic City Bacharach Giants pitches a no-hitter against the Chicago. American Giants in game five of the Negro League World Series. It is important to note that Farrell only pitched seven innings, as the game was.

1927 The Chicago American Giants defeated the Atlantic City Bacharach Giants five games to. Three (one game ended in a tie) to claim the Negro League World Series title.

1928 The Eastern Colored League (ECL) folds before mid season. 1928 With no eastern league, teams like the Atlantic City Bacharach Giants, Baltimore Black. Sox, Hilldale and New York Lincoln Giants play an independent schedule for the season.

Louis Stars win the Playoff Series with the Chicago American Giants and are. Crowned champions of the Negro National League. 1929 The American Negro League (ANL) is formed, but folds after the first season. Atlantic City Bacharach Giants, Baltimore Black Sox, Cuban Stars (East), Hilldale.

Homestead Grays and New York Lincoln Giants make up the teams that played in the. The Baltimore Black Sox are crowned the champions at the end of the season.

Gilmore (secretary of the Kansas City Monarchs) forms the Texas-Oklahoma. Gilmore serves as the President of the league.

Buffaloes win both halves of the season. 1929 Satchel Paige (Birmingham Black Barons) strikes out 17 Cuban Stars batters in a game on. Paige bettered the feat six days later Paige when he struck out 18 Nashville Elite. Paige is credited with 194 strikeouts in 196 innings for the Negro National. 1929 Herbert Rap Dixon (Baltimore Black Sox) collects fourteen (14) straight hits over a four.

Game stretch in July of 1929. 1929 The Kansas City Monarchs are crowned the Negro National League champions. 1929 The Kansas City Monarchs meet the Houston Black Buffaloes in a self-proclaimed. Kansas City wins the series.

1929 The Chicago American Giants play the Homestead Grays in a Championship Series. The American Giants swept the Grays in five straight games. System that enables the Monarchs to play night game as they barnstorm all over the United. Wilkinson introduces night baseball to America five years before the Major League. 1930 On May 15th Johnny Marcum (Kansas City Monarchs) pitched the first no-hitter in night.

Marcum beat the Waco Cardinals (Waco, Texas) 8-0. The first perfect game in night baseball. 1930 Negro League clubs make their first appearance at Yankee Stadium. In July of 1930 the. Baltimore Black Sox and New York Lincoln Giants played a double header at Yankee. The game was played to benefit the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters.

1930 Smoky Joe Williams of the Homestead Grays struck out twenty-seven (27) Kansas City. Monarchs batters and gave up only one hit in a twelve (12) inning 1-0 victory for the. 1930 The Kansas City Monarchs drop out of the Negro National League at the end of the. The Monarchs owner cited financial loses as the reason for his team. Changing to an independent schedule.

The Monarchs would play a barnstorming. Independent schedule for the next six years. Louis Stars defeat the Detroit Stars in a Negro National League Playoff Series. 1930 Even though there is no formal league in the East, the Homestead Grays and the New York. Lincoln Giants play an 11 game Championship Series. 1930 Josh Gibson hits the longest homerun in the history of Yankee Stadium. Continues today if it went over the roof. Hall of Famer Judy Johnson who played in the. Game for the game was sure it did. Bill Holland and Larry Brown of the Lincoln Giants. The one thing they all agreed on was it was the longest homerun any of them.

1930 Satchel Paige is credited with sticking out 22 hitters in a barnstorming game. 1930 Andrew Rube Foster the founder of the Negro National League dies on December 9.

1931 At the height of the Depression, Gus Greenlee (owner of the Pittsburgh Crawfords) builds. 1931 Ed Bolden looses control of Hilldale to John Drew who renames the team the. 1931 Robert Cole takes over the Chicago American Giants.

1931 Kansas City Monarchs barnstorm against the white House of David. 1931 The Homestead Grays and Kansas City Monarchs play a Championship Series. Grays win the series by defeating the Monarchs six games to three. 1931 Juan Tetelo Vargas (Cuban House of David) becomes recognized as the fastest baseball. Player in the world when he circles the bases in an astounding 13.02 seconds.

Accomplished in September when the Cuban House of David were playing in Sioux City. 1931 In October the Kansas City Monarchs and St. Louis Stars combine their rosters to form one. Team to play a National League All Star team that included: Babe Herman, Bill Terry. Lloyd Waner and Paul Waner.

Louis team wins all five games of the. 1931 The Homestead Grays are credited with a won-loss record of 136-17 for the season. 1931 Newspaper stories report that Josh Gibson hit 75 homeruns for the 1931 season.

This number has never been confirmed with actual box scores. 1931 The Negro National League ceases operation and does not field a schedule for the 1932. 1932 Cumberland Posey leads a group that forms the short-lived East-West League.

League included the following teams Baltimore Black Sox, Cleveland Stars, Cuban Stars. Detroit Wolves, Hilldale, Homestead Grays, Newark Browns, New York Black Yankees. Pittsburgh Crawfords and Washington Pilots.

Originally, each team was to have played. The league folds in late June of 1932.

1932 The Negro Southern League is considered a major league of Negro League baseball. 1932 Chicago American Giants win the first half of the Negro Southern League season and then. Defeat the Nashville Elite Giants in a Playoff Series to win the Negro Southern League title.

1932 Satchel Paige (Pittsburgh Crawfords) tosses a no hitter against the New York Black. The Crawfords won the game 6-0.

1932 The Pittsburgh Crawfords post a won-loss record of 96-36.727 for the season. 1933 Under the leadership of Gus Greenlee, owner of the Pittsburgh Crawfords, the new. Negro National League is formed. Teams played in the Negro National league during the.

1933 season were the Baltimore Black Sox, Coles American Giants, Columbus Blue. Birds, Detroit Stars, Homestead Grays, Nashville Elite Giants and Pittsburgh Crawfords. 1933 Gus Greenlee, owner of the Pittsburg Crawfords, installs lights at Greenlee Field to give. The team the opportunity to play night games. 1933 The Pittsburgh Crawfords beat the Nashville Elite Giants in a Playoff Series to claim the.

1933 The first annual East-West All Star game is played. The historic game was played at. Comiskey Park (Chicago, IL) on September 10th. In a real slugfest the West squad defeated. The East by a score of 11-7.

The tour was reported as 46-4. 1934 Satchel Paige throw a no-hitter and strikes out 17 batters against the Homestead Grays. 1934 The Austin Black senators defeat the Newgulf Black Buffs by a score of 3-2 in a 27 inning. Both teams played in the Texas-Oklahoma-Louisiana League. In August at Monarch Field in Houston, Texas.

1934 Satchel Paige and Bill Perkins join the white House of David team and lead them to a. Victory over the Kansas City Monarchs in the prestigious Denver Post Tournament. 1934 The Philadelphia Stars defeat the Chicago American Giants in a Playoff Series to win the. 1935 Oscar Charleston and Josh Gibson lead the Pittsburgh Crawfords to a Playoff Series.

Victory over the New York Cubans. 1935 Bismarck (ND) with Negro League pitcher Satchel Paige win the National Semi-pro. 1935 Yankee Stadium hosted a four-team Negro League doubleheader on September 22nd. The Nashville Elite Giants defeated the Cuban Stars 4-3 and the Pittsburgh Crawfords.

Defeated the Philadelphia Stars 12-2. An estimated crowd of 20,000 to 27,000 attended the. 1936 The New York Black Yankees are admitted to the Negro National League. 1936 Negro National League All Stars win the prestigious Denver Post Tournament. 1936 Negro League All Stars barnstorm against Bob Fellers All Stars and take four of the five. 1936 Ray Brown goes 21-4 with 23 complete games during the Cuban Winter League season. 1936 Abe Manley buys the Newark Dodgers and combines them with his team the Brooklyn. Royal Giants to form the Newark Eagles. 1936 Effa Manley, co-owner of the Newark Eagles with her husband Abe, becomes the first. Women general manager in Negro League baseball history. 1936 The Negro National League Play-Off Series ends after only one game is played. Washington Elite Giants defeated the Pittsburgh Crawfords by a score of 2-0. The problem that league officials was faced with was that many.

Of the players from both teams were already playing with other teams for the winter. 1937 The Negro American League (NAL) is formed. The teams that played in the inaugural. Season of the Negro American League were the Birmingham Black Barons, Chicago. American Giants, Cincinnati Tigers, Detroit Stars, Indianapolis Athletics, Memphis Red.

1937 Josh Gibson and Judy Johnson are traded by the Pittsburgh Crawfords to the Homestead. 1937 Hilton Smith (Kansas City Monarchs) throws a no-hitter against the Chicago American. The Monarchs won the game 4-0. 1937 Most of the top Negro League players defect to the Dominican Republic. Defectors were Satchel Paige, Josh Gibson, James Cool Pappa Bell, Chet Brewer, Martin. Dihigo, Sam Bankhead, Pat Patterson, Alejandro Oms and Juan Tetelo Vargas. 1937 The Kansas City Monarchs win both halves of the Negro American League season. 1937 The Chicago American Giants dispute the Kansas City Monarchs being awarded the title.

So a special post season Playoff Series is played. Kansas City defeats Chicago to claim title. 1937 Homestead Grays win the Negro National League championship. This would be their first.

1937 After the regular Negro National League season, the Homestead Grays and Newark Eagles. Combine their rosters to form one team to play a combined squad from the Kansas City.

Monarchs and Chicago American Giants of the Negro American League. Team win eight of nine games to hand the Monarchs-American Giants team a humiliating. 1937 Satchel Paige, Josh Gibson and James Cool Pappa Bell return from the Dominican. Republic and lead their Cuidad Trujillo team to a Denver Post Tournament title.

1937 At the Polo Grounds in New York City, Johnny Taylor (New York Cubans) throws a. No-hitter against Satchel Paige and his Dominican All Stars.

1938 In February Satchel Paige meets with Negro National League officials in Pittsburgh to see. If he and the other players who had been banned for jumping their teams during the 1937. Paige leaves the meeting disgruntled and threatens to for his. Own team that would barnstorm across the United States and Latin America. Gilmore, secretary of the Kansas City Monarchs, proposed a plan to nationally.

Organize all the black semipro and independent teams in the United States into a series of. The goal of these regional leagues would be to feed the Negro. American League and Negro National League with ballplayers. Gilmore felt his plan would. The press titled the proposed endeavor the Rube Foster. 1938 The Miami Giants become the Ethiopian Clowns under owner Johnny Pierce. 1938 A four team doubleheader is played at Yankee Stadium to benefit the Greater New York. An estimated crowd of 15,000 fans turned out to see the Philadelphia Stars beat the. Baltimore Elite Giants in game one and the Pittsburgh Crawfords defeat the New York. Black Yankees in game two. 1938 Josh Gibson hits four homeruns in one game against the Memphis Sox at Mack Park in. 1938 Roy Campanella plays his rookie season with the Baltimore Elite Giants. 1938 Chet Brewer becomes the first Negro League ball player to play in the Mexican League. 1938 The Memphis Red Sox (21-4) win the first half of the Negro American League season and. The Atlanta Black Crackers (12-4) win the second half of the season. Black Crackers in a Playoff Series. 1938 Homestead Grays win the Negro National League pennant. 1939 Jorge Pasquel, President of the Mexican League, lures James Cool Pappa Bell, Cher. Brewer, Barney brown, Willie Jefferson, Lazaro Salazar, Ramon Bragana and Silvio Garcia. To play South of the Border. 1939 Kansas City Monarchs win the Negro American League title and the Homestead Grays win.

1939 The Homestead Grays, Newark Eagles, Philadelphia Stars and Baltimore Elite Giants. Square off in a four way Playoff Series.

The Grays beat the Stars in the first match up and. The Elite Giants beat the Eagles in their series. In the finals Baltimore prevailed over.

Homestead to win a trophy donated by Colonel Jacob Ruppert owner of the New York. 1939 Willie Wells of the Newark Eagles becomes the first player in baseball history to wear a. Wells borrowed a construction helmet to protect his head when he had.

Received a concussion the day before and the doctor ordered him not to play. 1939 The Homestead Grays sweep the American Series in Cuba, winning all five games. 1939 Satchel Paige goes 19-3 and strikes out 208 batters in 205 innings to lead Guayama to the. 1940 In an attempt to integrate Major League baseball, the Young Communist League of New. York collect 20,000 signatures supporting blacks playing in the Major Leagues.

1940 A large number of Negro League Stars play the 1940 season in Mexico. Players defecting to Mexico included: Sam Bankhead, James Cool Pappa Bell, Barney. Brown, Willard Brown, Ray Dandridge, Ducky Davenport, Martin Dihigo, Martin Dihigo. Bob Griffith, Bob Harvey, Willie Jefferson, Leroy Matlock, Henry Mc Henry, Pat.

Patterson, Andy Porter, Ted Radcliffe, Theo Smith, Ed Stone, Ted Strong, Johnny Taylor. Quincy Trouppe, Willie Wells, Roy Welmaker and Wild Bill Wright. 1940 Kansas City Monarchs win the Negro American League pennant and the Homestead Grays. Win the Negro National League title.

1940 On December 29th a fire destroyed the Chicago American Giants ball park American. The park had originally been the home of the Chicago White Sox before the. Team moved to Comiskey Park. 1941 Satchel Paige of the Kansas City Monarchs is reported to be the highest paid player in.

Professional baseball (black or white). 1941 A crowd of 39,000 fans at Biggs Stadium (Home of the Detroit Tigers) are on hand to.

Witness the Kansas City Monarchs sweep a double header from the Chicago American. 1941 Newt Allen takes over as manager of the Kansas City Monarchs and leads them to a Negro. 1941 Homestead Grays win the first half of the Negro national League season and the New York. Cubans win the second half. The Grays win the Playoff Series against the Cubans.

1941 Gene Smith of the St. Louis Stars pitches a 6-1 no-hitter versus the New York Black.

1941 The East-West All Star game at Comiskey Park (Chicago) draws a record 50,256 fans. 1942 Radio station WWDC of Washington, D. Becomes the first radio station to regularly.

Broadcast Negro League baseball games. WWDC aired the Washington-Homestead Grays. 1942 The Negro Major League is formed.

League teams included Baltimore Black Orioles. Boston Royal Giants, Chicago Brown Bombers, Cincinnati Clowns, Detroit Black Sox. Paul (Twin Cities) Black Gophers. League folds at the end of the. 1942 Leon Day (Newark Eagles) struck out 18 batters and only allowed one hit in a victory over.

1942 The Philadelphia Phillies of the National League show an interest in signing Roy. Campanella (Baltimore Elite Giants) as the first black player to play in the Major Leagues. 1942 The Pittsburgh Pirates (National League) announce they will give a tryout to the following. Negro League players: Dave Barnhill (New York Cubans), Roy Campanella Baltimore. Elite Giants and Sammy Hughes.

The tryout is scheduled for August 4th but is rescheduled. Nothing ever comes of the tryout.

1942 The first Negro League World Series is played between the Negro National League and the. The Kansas City Monarchs (Negro American League) defeated. The Homestead Grays (Negro National League) in four straight games to claim the Negro. 1942 The East-West All Star game that was played in Comiskey Park (Chicago) draws a record. Crowd of 51,000 fans. Players for the next season. Major League Baseball Commissioner Kenesaw Mountain. 1943 Alvin Gipson of the Birmingham Black Barons struck out 20 batters breaking the record of. 18 by Satchel Paige and Leon Day.

Birmingham breezed to a 5-1 victory over the. 1943 The Birmingham Black Barons win the Negro American League title after beating the. Chicago American Giants in a Playoff Series. 1943 The Homestead Grays (Negro National League) defeat the Birmingham Black Barons. (Negro American League) to win the Negro league World Series.

1944 Albert Happy Chandler succeeds Kenesaw Mountain Landis as the Commissioner of. Chandler is more open to blacks playing in the Major Leagues. 1944 The Homestead Grays and Birmingham Black Barons meet in Negro League World Series. The result is the same as the year before (the Homestead Grays won it all). 1945 Branch Rickey (Brooklyn Dodgers) is instrumental in starting the United States League. Rickeys goal was to use the league to scout black ball players.

Following teams: Brooklyn Brown Dodgers, Chicago Brown Bombers, Detroit Motor City. Giants, Philadelphia Hilldales, Pittsburgh Crawfords and Toledo Rays.

1945 Ray Brown (Homestead Grays) pitches a perfect game against the Chicago American. Giants at Griffith Stadium in Washington, D.

The Grays won the game 7-0. 1945 Dave Showboat Thomas (New York Cubans) and Terris McDuffie (Newark Eagles). Show up uninvited to the Brooklyn Dodgers training camp at Bear Mountain (NY) and are.

1945 Jackie Robinson (Kansas City Monarchs), Sam Jethroe (Cleveland Buckeyes) and Marvin. Williams (Philadelphia Stars) are given a tryout at Fenway Park by the Boston Red Sox. Chandler, Commissioner of baseball, meets with the black press in Washington, D. And pledges support for efforts to integrate the Major Leagues. 1945 The Cleveland Indians farm team in Bakersfield (CA) announces they want to hire Chet.

Brewer as the teams player-manager. The deal is approved by George Trautman Minor. League Commissioner but is killed by Roger Peckinpaugh Cleveland Indians General. 1945 Jackie Robinson signs a contract with the Montreal Royals of the International League. 1945 The Homestead Grays make their third straight appearance in the Negro League World.

The Grays are thoroughly dominated by the Cleveland Buckeyes (Negro American). Who seep them in four straight games. 1946 Leon Day throws a no-hitter on the opening day of the Negro National League season. Posts s won-loss record of 14-4 for the season. 1946 Abe Saperstein attempts to bring Major League Negro League baseball to the West Coast. When he forms the West Coast Baseball Association also known as the Negro Pacific.

The league had franchise in Fresno, Oakland, Portland, San Francisco and. The league folded before the midpoint of the season.

1946 Jorge Pasquel, President of the Mexican League and owner of the Vera Cruz Blues, raids. The Negro Leagues for Ray Dandridge, Bill Cash, Theo Smith, Martin Dihigo, Wilmer.

1946 Branch Rickey (Brooklyn Dodgers) signs four more Negro League players and assigns. Them to the Dodgers Minor League farm clubs. These players were Roy Campanella.

(Nashua), Roy Partlow (Montreal), Johnny Wright (Montreal) and Don Newcombe. Don Newcombe goes 14-4 at Nashua.

1946 Gentry Jessup (Chicago American Giants) and Eddie Peanuts Davis Indianapolis. Clowns hook up for a 20 inning pitching duel that ends in a 3-3 tie. 1946 Josh Gibson (Homestead Grays) hits. 397 in his final season of Negro League baseball. 1946 Jackie Robinson (Montreal Royals) leads the International League in hitting with a.

1946 The Newark Eagles defeat the Kansas City Monarchs in the Negro League World Series. 1946 Satchel Paige (Kansas City Monarchs) and Bob Feller (Cleveland Indians) play a nation. Wide barnstorming tour that draws 271,645 fans.

1947 The legendary Josh Gibson passes away on January 20, 1947 at the age of 35. 1947 Four New York Cuban pitchers Eddie Daniels, Pat Scantlebury, James Jenkins and Luis. Combine to pitch a perfect game against the New Orleans Creoles. 1947 Sam Lacy of the Baltimore Afro-American becomes the first black sports writer to be.

Admitted to the Baseball Writers Association of America. 1947 Jackie Robinson becomes the first African American to play in the modern day Major.

Leagues when he takes the field for the Brooklyn Dodgers of the National League. 1947 Larry Doby becomes the first African American to play in the American League. Played his first game for the Cleveland Indians on July 5th.

1947 Dan Bankhead becomes the first black pitcher to pitch in the Major Leagues when he takes. The mound for the Brooklyn Dodgers on August 26, 1947. 1947 Attendance at Negro League games begins a rapid decline.

Attendance dropped from 120,000 in 1946 to 57,000 in 1947. 1947 The New York Cubans make short work of the Cleveland Buckeyes in the Negro League. Cleveland can manage only one win in five games. 1947 Jackie Robinson wins the National League Rookie of the Year award.

1947 At the Negro National League meeting in Chicago on December 29th, the league owners. The move is made to combat a. 1948 Satchel Paige is signed by the Cleveland Indians of the American League.

At the age of 42. Satchel becomes the oldest rookie to play in the Major Leagues. With a 6-1 record and a 2.48 ERA. Paige helped lead Cleveland to American League and.

1948 More than 72,000 fans jam into Cleveland Stadium to see Satchel Paige pitch in his first. Game for the Cleveland Indians. 1948 Television station WEWS (Cleveland) broadcast a double header between the Cleveland. Buckeyes and Memphis Red Sox. The game was also covered on the radio, making it the.

First time a Negro League game was ever be carried on the radio and television at the same. Further television broadcast were cancelled because Negro league officials felt they. Hurt attendance at the game. 1948 Artie Wilson (Birmingham Black Barons) wins the Negro American League Batting Title. This is the last time a player hit over.

400 for the season in a. 1948 The Birmingham Black Barons beat the Kansas City Monarchs four games to zero for the.

1948 The Homestead Grays win the Negro League World Series. Black Barons it what would be the final Negro league World Series ever played.

1948 Satchel Paige becomes the first African American to pitch in a World Series game. 1948 Abe and Effa Manley sell the Newark Eagles Dr. Young moved the team to Houston, Texas. 1948 The Negro National League disbands after the 1948 regular season. 1948 The Homestead Grays and New York Black Yankees quit organized baseball to play an. 1948 At a joint league meeting in Chicago, the Negro American League absorbs the remaining. Teams from the Negro National League into their organization. League is divided into Eastern and Western divisions. 1949 Gene Collins of the Kansas City Monarchs pitches a no-hitter versus the Houston Eagles. 1949 The Homestead Grays join the Negro American Association and win the first half of the. Season with a record of 24-2. The second half season results were not reported.

1949 Jackie Robinson is the first black player to lead the National League in batting average. 1949 Roy Campanella, Larry Doby, Don Newcombe and Jackie Robinson are the first blacks to. Appear in a Major League All Star game. 1949 Jackie Robinson (Brooklyn Dodgers) is the first black player to win the National League.

Most Valuable Player (MVP) award. 1949 Don Newcombe (Brooklyn Dodgers) is voted National League Rookie of the Year. 1951 Emmett Ashford becomes the first black umpire in organized baseball. The Southwest International League during the 1951 baseball season. 1950 Sam Jethroe is signed by the Boston Braves of the National League. Jethroe goes on to win. The 1950 National League Rookie of the Year. 1951 Bill Veeck of the St. Louis Browns (National League) offers James Cool Pappa Bell a. The 48 year old Bell declines the offer. 1951 Monte Irvin of the New York Giants leads the National League in runs batted in with 121. 1951 Roy Campanella (Brooklyn Dodgers) becomes the first black player to win the National. League Most Valuable Player (MVP) award. Campanella would go on to win the MVP. Award two more times (1953 and 1995). 1952 Indianapolis Clowns sign Toni Stone, the first women to play in the Negro Leagues. 1952 By the end of the season more than 150 Negro League ball players have been signed into. 1952 Joe Black of the Brooklyn Dodgers wins the National League Rookie of the Year. 1955 Elston Howard joins the New York Yankees Major League roster, making him the first. Black player to play for the Yankees Major League team.

It took the New York Yankees. Eight years to bring their first black ball player to the Major Leagues. 1954 Larry Doby (Cleveland Indians) leads the American League in homeruns with 32 and runs. 1955 Sam Jones becomes the first black pitcher to throw a no-hitter in the Major Leagues. 1956 Don Newcombe wins both the Cy Young Award and the National League Most Valuable.

Newcombe won 27 games during the season. 1957 Jessie Mitchell (Birmingham Black Barons) wins the Negro American League Triple. Crown by leading the league in homeruns with 17, runs batted in with 67 and compiling a. 1959 The Boston Red Sox become the last team to integrate their Major League roster when. Elijah Pumpsie Green debuts for the Red Sox on July 21, 1959.

1960 Comiskey Park (Chicago, IL) hosts its last East-West All Star game. 1961 An East-West All Star game is played in New York City. The game was held in. Conjunction with the Negro Elks convention. 1962 Buck ONeil becomes the first black coach in Major League baseball when he signs with. The Chicago Cubs of the National League. 1962 The last East-West All Star game is held. The game was played in Kansas City. 1962 The Negro American League folds after the East-West All Star game.

1962 Jackie Robinson becomes the first former Negro League player to be enshrined in the. National Baseball Hall of Fame (Cooperstown). 1963 Elston Howard (New York Yankees) becomes the first black player to win the Most. Valuable Player Award in the American League. 1963 Even though there is no official league four teams Indianapolis Clowns, Kansas City.

Monarchs, Philadelphia Stars and Satchel Paige All Stars continue to play a barnstorming. By the late 1960s only the Indianapolis Clowns are left. 1964 Willie Mays (San Francisco Giants) becomes the first black captain of a Major League.

1965 Syd Pollock sells the Indianapolis Clowns to Ed Hamman. 1966 Emmett Ashford becomes the first black umpire in the Major Leagues when he umpires in. A game between the Cleveland Indians and Washington Senators on March 11, 1966. 1968 Monte Irvin is selected to serve in the office of the Commissioner of Baseball. Under Spike Eckert and Bowie Kuhn, Irvin held that position until 1984. 1969 Elston Howard of the New York Yankees becomes the first black coach in the. 1969 Roy Campanella (Brooklyn Dodgers) is inducted into the National Baseball Hall of. 1970 Curt Flood files a lawsuit challenging Major League Baseballs reserve clause. Would eventually result in free agency in baseball. 1971 Bill White becomes the first black announcer in baseball when he is hired by the New York. Yankees to announce their games. 1971 The Pittsburgh Pirates become the first team in Major League history to field an all black. The historic event occurred on September 01, 1971. 1971 Satchel Paige becomes the first player to be inducted into the National Baseball Hall of. Fame in Cooperstown strictly for his play in the Negro Leagues.

1972 Josh Gibson and Walter Buck Leonard are inducted into the National baseball Hall of. 1972 Ed Hamman sells the Indianapolis Clowns to George Long of Muscatine, Iowa. 1975 Frank Robinson of the Cleveland Indians becomes the first black manager in Major League.

1977 Bill Lucas of the Atlanta Braves is the black general manger in the Major Leagues. 1978 Larry Doby of the Chicago White Sox becomes the second black manager in Major League. 1981 Andrew Rube Foster is elected to the National Baseball Hall of Fame.

1982 Frank Robinson of the San Francisco Giants finished in second place voting to Joe Torre. For the National League Manager of the Year. 1982 Negro League great Satchel Paige passes away on June 8th in his hometown of Kansas City.

1983 George Long sells the Indianapolis Clowns to Dave Clark and Sal Tombasco of Corning. 1989 After playing a few games at the beginning of the season, the Indianapolis Clowns cease.

1989 Frank Robinson of the Baltimore Orioles is named American League Manager of the Year. Robinson led Baltimore to a record of 87-75 in 1989 (they had been 54-107 in 1988).

The item "ERNEST WITHERS PHOTO 8X10 AFRICAN AMERICAN ARTIST PHOTOGRAPHER NEGRO LEAGUES" is in sale since Saturday, August 1, 2020. This item is in the category "Art\Art Photographs".

The seller is "collectiblecollectiblecollectible" and is located in Ann Arbor, Michigan. This item can be shipped to United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Denmark, Romania, Slovakia, Bulgaria, Czech republic, Finland, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Estonia, Australia, Greece, Portugal, Cyprus, Slovenia, Japan, Sweden, South Korea, Indonesia, Taiwan, South africa, Thailand, Belgium, France, Hong Kong, Ireland, Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Italy, Germany, Austria, Bahamas, Israel, Mexico, New Zealand, Singapore, Norway, Saudi arabia, United arab emirates, Qatar, Kuwait, Bahrain, Croatia, Malaysia, Chile, Colombia, Costa rica, Panama, Trinidad and tobago, Guatemala, Honduras, Jamaica, Barbados, Bangladesh, Bermuda, Brunei darussalam, Bolivia, Ecuador, Egypt, French guiana, Guernsey, Gibraltar, Guadeloupe, Iceland, Jersey, Jordan, Cambodia, Cayman islands, Liechtenstein, Sri lanka, Luxembourg, Monaco, Macao, Martinique, Maldives, Nicaragua, Oman, Peru, Pakistan, Paraguay, Reunion, Viet nam, Uruguay.

  1. Size: Small (up to 12in.)
  2. Listed By: Dealer or Reseller
  3. Width (Inches): 10
  4. Originality: Original
  5. Height (Inches): 8

Ernest Withers Photo 8x10 African American Artist Photographer Negro Leagues   Ernest Withers Photo 8x10 African American Artist Photographer Negro Leagues