Photo African American

1945 Original African American Artist Photo Martin James Reed Nyc Harlem


1945 Original African American Artist Photo Martin James Reed Nyc Harlem
1945 Original African American Artist Photo Martin James Reed Nyc Harlem
1945 Original African American Artist Photo Martin James Reed Nyc Harlem

1945 Original African American Artist Photo Martin James Reed Nyc Harlem   1945 Original African American Artist Photo Martin James Reed Nyc Harlem
A VINTAGE ORIGINAL 8X10 INCH 1945 PHOTO OF A YOUNG AFRICAN AMERICAN ARTISTS MARTIN JAMES REED WITH HIS PORTRAIT OF GEORGE WASHINTGON CARVER WHILE AT JAMES FENIMORE COOPER JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL AT 18 EAST 120TH STREET IN HARLEM NYC. Harlem is a neighborhood in the northern section of the New York City borough of Manhattan.

It is bounded roughly by Frederick Douglass Boulevard, St. Nicholas Avenue, and Morningside Park on the west; the Harlem River and 155th Street on the north; Fifth Avenue on the east; and Central Park North on the south. The greater Harlem area encompasses several other neighborhoods and extends west to the Hudson River, north to 155th Street, east to the East River, and south to Martin Luther King, Jr. Boulevard, Central Park, and East 96th Street. Originally a Dutch village, formally organized in 1658, [4] it is named after the city of Haarlem in the Netherlands.

Harlem's history has been defined by a series of economic boom-and-bust cycles, with significant population shifts accompanying each cycle. [5] Harlem was predominantly occupied by Jewish and Italian Americans in the 19th century, but African-American residents began to arrive in large numbers during the Great Migration in the 20th century.

In the 1920s and 1930s, Central and West Harlem were the center of the Harlem Renaissance, a major African-American cultural movement. With job losses during the Great Depression of the 1930s and the deindustrialization of New York City after World War II, rates of crime and poverty increased significantly.

[6] In the 21st century, crime rates decreased significantly, and Harlem started to gentrify. Central Harlem is part of Manhattan Community District 10. [1] It is patrolled by the 28th and 32nd Precincts of the New York City Police Department. The greater Harlem area also includes Manhattan Community Districts 9 and 11, and several additional police precincts. Fire services are provided by four New York City Fire Department companies. Politically, Harlem is represented by the New York City Council's 7th, 8th, and 9th districts. The area is served by the New York City Subway and local bus routes. It contains several public elementary, middle, and high schools, and is close to several colleges including Columbia University and the City College of New York. Post offices and ZIP Codes. Map of Upper Manhattan, with Greater Harlem highlighted. Harlem proper is the neighborhood in the center. Harlem is located in Upper Manhattan, often referred to as Uptown by locals. The three neighborhoods comprising the greater Harlem area stretch from the Harlem River and East River to the east, to the Hudson River to the west; and between 155th Street in the north, where it meets Washington Heights, and an uneven boundary along the south that runs along 96th Street east of Fifth Avenue, 110th Street between Fifth Avenue to Morningside Park, and 125th Street west of Morningside Park to the Hudson River.

[7][8][9] These boundaries are also cited by Encyclopædia Britannica, [10] though the Encyclopedia of New York City takes a much more conservative view of Harlem's boundaries, only regarding central Harlem as part of Harlem proper. Central Harlem is the name of Harlem proper, and it falls under Manhattan Community District 10. [7] This section is bounded by Fifth Avenue on the east; Central Park on the south; Morningside Park, St. Nicholas Avenue and Edgecombe Avenue on the west; and the Harlem River on the north.

[7] A chain of three large linear parksMorningside Park, St. Nicholas Park and Jackie Robinson Parkare situated on steeply rising banks and form most of the district's western boundary.

Fifth Avenue, as well as Marcus Garvey Park (also known as Mount Morris Park), separate this area from East Harlem to the east. [7] Central Harlem includes the Mount Morris Park Historic District. West Harlem is composed of Manhattanville and Hamilton Heights, which collectively comprise Manhattan Community District 9 and are not part of Harlem proper.

The two neighborhoods' area is bounded by Cathedral Parkway/110th Street on the south; 155th Street on the north; Manhattan/Morningside Ave/St. Nicholas/Bradhurst/Edgecombe Avenues on the east; and Riverside Park/the Hudson River on the west. Manhattanville begins at roughly 123rd Street and extends northward to 135th Street.

The northernmost section of West Harlem is Hamilton Heights. East Harlem, also called Spanish Harlem or El Barrio, is located within Manhattan Community District 11, which is bounded by East 96th Street on the south, East 138th Street on the north, Fifth Avenue on the west, and the Harlem River on the east. It is not part of Harlem proper.

Further information: Morningside Heights, Manhattan § SoHa controversy. In the 2010s, some real estate professionals started rebranding south Harlem and Morningside Heights as "SoHa" (a name standing for "South Harlem" in the style of SoHo or NoHo) in an attempt to accelerate gentrification of the neighborhoods. "SoHa", applied to the area between West 110th and 125th Streets, has become a controversial name.

[12][13][14] Residents and other critics seeking to prevent this renaming of the area have labelled the SoHa brand as "insulting and another sign of gentrification run amok"[15] and have said that, the rebranding not only places their neighborhood's rich history under erasure but also appears to be intent on attracting new tenants, including students from nearby Columbia University. Multiple New York City politicians have initiated legislative efforts to curtail this practice of neighborhood rebranding, which when successfully introduced in other New York City neighborhoods, have led to increases in rents and real estate values, as well as "shifting demographics". Representative Hakeem Jeffries attempted but failed to implement legislation that would punish real estate agents for inventing false neighborhoods and redrawing neighborhood boundaries without city approval. [16] By 2017, New York State Senator Brian Benjamin also worked to render illegal the practice of rebranding historically recognized neighborhoods.

Politically, central Harlem is in New York's 13th congressional district. [17][18] It is in the New York State Senate's 30th district, [19][20] the New York State Assembly's 68th and 70th districts, [21][22] and the New York City Council's 7th, 8th, and 9th districts. Harlem, from the old fort in the Central Park, New York Public Library. Main article: History of Harlem.

Before the arrival of European settlers, the area that would become Harlem (originally Haarlem) was inhabited by the Manhattans, a native tribe, who along with other Native Americans, most likely Lenape, [24] occupied the area on a semi-nomadic basis. As many as several hundred farmed the Harlem flatlands. [25] Between 1637 and 1639, a few settlements were established. [26][27] The settlement of Harlem was formally incorporated in 1660[28] under the leadership of Peter Stuyvesant. [29] During the American Revolution, the British burned Harlem to the ground. [30] It took a long time to rebuild, as Harlem grew more slowly than the rest of Manhattan during the late 18th century. [31] After the American Civil War, Harlem experienced an economic boom starting in 1868. The neighborhood continued to serve as a refuge for New Yorkers, but increasingly those coming north were poor and Jewish or Italian. [32] The New York and Harlem Railroad, [33] as well as the Interborough Rapid Transit and elevated railway lines, [34] helped Harlem's economic growth, as they connected Harlem to lower and midtown Manhattan. Rowhouse built for the African-American population of Harlem in the 1930s. A condemned building in Harlem after the 1970s. The Jewish and Italian demographic decreased, while the black and Puerto Rican population increased in this time. [35] The early-20th century Great Migration of blacks to northern industrial cities was fueled by their desire to leave behind the Jim Crow South, seek better jobs and education for their children, and escape a culture of lynching violence; during World War I, expanding industries recruited black laborers to fill new jobs, thinly staffed after the draft began to take young men. [36] In 1910, Central Harlem was about 10% black. By 1930, it had reached 70%. [37] Starting around the time of the end of World War I, Harlem became associated with the New Negro movement, and then the artistic outpouring known as the Harlem Renaissance, which extended to poetry, novels, theater, and the visual arts. So many blacks came that it threaten[ed] the very existence of some of the leading industries of Georgia, Florida, Tennessee and Alabama. [38] Many settled in Harlem. By 1920, central Harlem was 32.43% black. The 1930 census revealed that 70.18% of central Harlem's residents were black and lived as far south as Central Park, at 110th Street. However, by the 1930s, the neighborhood was hit hard by job losses in the Great Depression. In the early 1930s, 25% of Harlemites were out of work, and employment prospects for Harlemites stayed bad for decades. Employment among black New Yorkers fell as some traditionally black businesses, including domestic service and some types of manual labor, were taken over by other ethnic groups. Major industries left New York City altogether, especially after 1950.

Several riots happened in this period, including in 1935 and 1943. There were major changes following World War II. In the late 1950s and early 1960s, Harlem was the scene of a series of rent strikes by neighborhood tenants, led by local activist Jesse Gray, together with the Congress of Racial Equality, Harlem Youth Opportunities Unlimited (HARYOU), and other groups. These groups wanted the city to force landlords to improve the quality of housing by bringing them up to code, to take action against rats and roaches, to provide heat during the winter, and to keep prices in line with existing rent control regulations. [40] The largest public works projects in Harlem in these years were public housing, with the largest concentration built in East Harlem.

[41] Typically, existing structures were torn down and replaced with city-designed and managed properties that would, in theory, present a safer and more pleasant environment than those available from private landlords. Ultimately, community objections halted the construction of new projects.

[42] From the mid-20th century, the low quality of education in Harlem has been a source of distress. In the 1960s, about 75% of Harlem students tested under grade levels in reading skills, and 80% tested under grade level in math.

[43] In 1964, residents of Harlem staged two school boycotts to call attention to the problem. In central Harlem, 92% of students stayed home. [44] In the post-World War II era, Harlem ceased to be home to a majority of the city's blacks, [45] but it remained the cultural and political capital of black New York, and possibly black America. By the 1970s, many of those Harlemites who were able to escape from poverty left the neighborhood in search of better schools and homes, and safer streets.

Those who remained were the poorest and least skilled, with the fewest opportunities for success. [48] The city began auctioning its enormous portfolio of Harlem properties to the public in 1985. This was intended to improve the community by placing property in the hands of people who would live in them and maintain them.

After the 1990s, Harlem began to grow again. Between 1990 and 2006 the neighborhood's population grew by 16.9%, with the percentage of blacks decreasing from 87.6% to 69.3%, [39] then dropping to 54.4% by 2010, [50] and the percentage of whites increasing from 1.5% to 6.6% by 2006, [39] and to "almost 10%" by 2010. [50] A renovation of 125th Street and new properties along the thoroughfare[51][52] also helped to revitalize Harlem. Welcome to Harlem sign above the now defunct Victoria 5 cinema theater on 125th st. In the 1920s and 1930s, Central and West Harlem was the focus of the "Harlem Renaissance", an outpouring of artistic work without precedent in the American Black community.

Though Harlem musicians and writers are particularly well remembered, the community has also hosted numerous actors and theater companies, including the New Heritage Repertory Theater, [29] National Black Theater, Lafayette Players, Harlem Suitcase Theater, The Negro Playwrights, American Negro Theater, and the Rose McClendon Players. The Apollo Theater on 125th Street in November 2006. The Apollo Theater opened on 125th Street on January 26, 1934, in a former burlesque house. The Savoy Ballroom, on Lenox Avenue, was a renowned venue for swing dancing, and was immortalized in a popular song of the era, "Stompin' At The Savoy". In the 1920s and 1930s, between Lenox and Seventh Avenues in central Harlem, over 125 entertainment venues were in operation, including speakeasies, cellars, lounges, cafes, taverns, supper clubs, rib joints, theaters, dance halls, and bars and grills.

[55] 133rd Street, known as "Swing Street", became known for its cabarets, speakeasies and jazz scene during the Prohibition era, and was dubbed "Jungle Alley" because of "inter-racial mingling" on the street. [56][57] Some jazz venues, including the Cotton Club, where Duke Ellington played, and Connie's Inn, were restricted to whites only.

Others were integrated, including the Renaissance Ballroom and the Savoy Ballroom. In 1936, Orson Welles produced his black Macbeth at the Lafayette Theater in Harlem. [58] Grand theaters from the late 19th and early 20th centuries were torn down or converted to churches. Harlem lacked any permanent performance space until the creation of the Gatehouse Theater in an old Croton aqueduct building on 135th Street in 2006. Spiritual African Drummer on 135th Street between Adam Clayton Powell Boulevard and Frederick Douglass Boulevard.

From 1965 until 2007, the community was home to the Harlem Boys Choir, a touring choir and education program for young boys, most of whom are black. [60] The Girls Choir of Harlem was founded in 1989, and closed with the Boys Choir. Harlem is also home to the largest African American Day Parade, which celebrates the culture of African diaspora in America. The parade was started up in the spring of 1969 with Congressman Adam Clayton Powell, Jr. As the Grand Marshal of the first celebration.

Arthur Mitchell, a former dancer with the New York City Ballet, established Dance Theatre of Harlem as a school and company of classical ballet and theater training in the late 1960s. The company has toured nationally and internationally. Generations of theater artists have gotten a start at the school. Manhattan's contributions to hip-hop stems largely from artists with Harlem roots such as Big L, Kurtis Blow, The Diplomats, Mase or Immortal Technique. Harlem is also the birthplace of popular hip-hop dances such as the Harlem shake, toe wop, and Chicken Noodle Soup.

Harlem is currently experiencing a gourmet renaissance, with new dining hotspots popping up uptown around Frederick Douglass Boulevard. [63] At the same time, some residents are fighting back against the powerful waves of gentrification the neighborhood is experiencing. On October 17, 2013, residents staged a sidewalk sit-in to protest a five-days-a-week farmers market that would shut down Macombs Place at 150th Street.

In the 1920s, African American pianists who lived in Harlem invented their own style of jazz piano, called stride, which was heavily influenced by ragtime. This style played a very important role in early jazz piano[65][66]. Religious life has historically had a strong presence in Black Harlem. The area is home to over 400 churches, [67] some of which are official city or national landmarks.

[68][69] Major Christian denominations include Baptists, Pentecostals, Methodists (generally African Methodist Episcopalian, or "AME"), Episcopalians, and Roman Catholic. The Abyssinian Baptist Church has long been influential because of its large congregation. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints built a chapel on 128th Street in 2005.

Many of the area's churches are "storefront churches", which operate in an empty store, or a basement, or a converted brownstone townhouse. These congregations may have fewer than 3050 members each, but there are hundreds of them.

[70] Others are old, large, and designated landmarks. Especially in the years before World War II, Harlem produced popular Christian charismatic "cult" leaders, including George Wilson Becton and Father Divine. [71] Mosques in Harlem include the Masjid Malcolm Shabazz formerly Mosque No. 7 Nation of Islam, and the location of the 1972 Harlem mosque incident, the Mosque of Islamic Brotherhood and Masjid Aqsa. Judaism, too, maintains a presence in Harlem through the Old Broadway Synagogue.

A non-mainstream synagogue of Black Hebrews, known as Commandment Keepers, was based in a synagogue at 1 West 123rd Street until 2008. St Martin's Episcopal Church, at Lenox Avenue and 122nd Street. Hotel Theresa building at the corner of Adam Clayton Powell Jr.

State Office Building, at the same intersection as the Hotel Theresa. Many places in Harlem are official city landmarks labeled by the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission or are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. 12 West 129th Street, a New York City landmark[72]. 17 East 128th Street, a New York City landmark[73]. 369th Regiment Armory, a New York City landmark and NRHP-listed site[74][69].

Abyssinian Baptist Church, a New York City landmark[75]. Apollo Theater, a New York City landmark and NRHP-listed site[76][69]. Astor Row, a set of New York City landmark houses[68]:207. 1, Fort Clinton, and Nutter's Battery, part of Central Park, a New York City scenic landmark and NRHP-listed site[77][69]. Central Harlem West130132nd Streets Historic District, a New York City landmark[78].

Dunbar Apartments, a New York City landmark[79]. Graham Court Apartments, a New York City landmark[80]. Hamilton Grange, a New York City landmark and NRHP-listed site[81]. Harlem River Houses, a New York City landmark[82]. Harlem YMCA, a New York City landmark[83].

Hotel Theresa, a New York City landmark[84]. Jackie Robinson YMCA Youth Center, a New York City landmark[85]. Langston Hughes House, a New York City landmark and NRHP-listed site[86][69]. Macombs Dam Bridge and 155th Street Viaduct, a New York City landmark[87].

Manhattan Avenue-West 120th-123rd Streets Historic District, a NRHP historic district[69]. Metropolitan Baptist Church, a New York City landmark and NRHP-listed site[88][69]. Minton's Playhouse, a NRHP-listed site[69]. Morningside Park, a New York City scenic landmark[89]. Mother African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church, a New York City landmark[90].

Mount Morris Park Historic District, a New York City landmark district[91]. Mount Olive Fire Baptized Holiness Church, a New York City landmark[92]. New York Public Library 115th Street Branch, a New York City landmark and NRHP-listed site[93][69]. Regent Theatre, a New York City landmark[94]. Schomburg Collection for Research in Black Culture, a New York City landmark and NRHP-listed site[95][69].

Aloysius Roman Catholic Church, a New York City landmark[96]. Andrew's Church, a New York City landmark and NRHP-listed site[97][69]. Philip's Protestant Episcopal Church, a New York City landmark[98]. Martin's Episcopal Church (formerly Trinity Church), a New York City landmark[99].

Nicholas Historic District, a New York City landmark district[100]. Paul's German Evangelical Lutheran Church, a New York City landmark[101]. Wadleigh High School for Girls, a New York City landmark[102]. Washington Apartments, a New York City landmark[103]. Other prominent points of interest include.

Bushman Steps, stairway that led baseball fans from the subway to The Polo Grounds ticket booth. Harbor Conservatory for the Performing Arts. The Harlem School of the Arts.

New York College of Podiatric Medicine. The demographics of Harlem's communities have changed throughout its history. In 1910, 10% of Harlem's population was black but by 1930, they had become a 70% majority. [6] The period between 1910 and 1930 marks a huge point in the great migration of African Americans from the South to New York. This point also marks an influx from downtown Manhattan neighborhoods where blacks were feeling less welcome, to the Harlem area.

[6] The black population in Harlem peaked in 1950, with a 98% share of the population (population 233,000). As of 2000, central Harlem's black population comprised 77% of the total population of that area; however, the black population is declining as many African Americans move out and more immigrants move in. Harlem suffers from unemployment rates generally more than twice the citywide average, as well as high poverty rates.

[106] and the numbers for men have been consistently worse than the numbers for women. Private and governmental initiatives to ameliorate unemployment and poverty have not been successful. During the Great Depression, unemployment in Harlem went past 20% and people were being evicted from their homes.

[107] At the same time, the federal government developed and instituted the redlining policy. This policy rated neighborhoods, such as Central Harlem, as unappealing based on the race, ethnicity, and national origins of the residents. [2] Central Harlem was deemed'hazardous' and residents living in Central Harlem were refused home loans or other investments.

[2] Comparably, wealthy and white residents in New York city neighborhoods were approved more often for housing loans and investment applications. [2] Overall, they were given preferential treatment by city and state institutions. In the 1960s, uneducated blacks could find jobs more easily than educated ones could, confounding efforts to improve the lives of people who lived in the neighborhood through education. [2] Land owners took advantage of the neighborhood and offered apartments to the lower-class families for cheaper rent but in lower-class conditions. [108] By 1999 there were 179,000 housing units available in Harlem. [109] Housing activists in Harlem state that, even after residents were given vouchers for the Section 8 housing that was being placed, many were not able to live there and had to find homes elsewhere or become homeless. [109] These policies are examples of societal racism, also known as structural racism.

As public health leaders have named structural racism as a key social determinant of health disparities between racial and ethnic minorities, [110] these 20th century policies have contributed to the current population health disparities between Central Harlem and other New York City neighborhoods. For census purposes, the New York City government classifies Central Harlem into two neighborhood tabulation areas: Central Harlem North and Central Harlem South, divided by 126th street. [111] Based on data from the 2010 United States Census, the population of Central Harlem was 118,665, a change of 9,574 (8.1%) from the 109,091 counted in 2000. Covering an area of 926.05 acres (374.76 ha), the neighborhood had a population density of 128.1 inhabitants per acre (82,000/sq mi; 31,700/km2). [112] The racial makeup of the neighborhood was 9.5% (11,322) White, 63% (74,735) African American, 0.3% (367) Native American, 2.4% (2,839) Asian, 0% (46) Pacific Islander, 0.3% (372) from other races, and 2.2% (2,651) from two or more races.

Hispanic or Latino of any race were 22.2% (26,333) of the population. Harlem's Black population was more concentrated in Central Harlem North, and its White population more concentrated in Central Harlem South, while the Hispanic / Latino population was evenly split.

The most significant shifts in the racial composition of Central Harlem between 2000 and 2010 were the White population's increase by 402% (9,067), the Hispanic / Latino population's increase by 43% (7,982), and the Black population's decrease by 11% (9,544). While the growth of the Hispanic / Latino was predominantly in Central Harlem North, the decrease in the Black population was slightly greater in Central Harlem South, and the drastic increase in the White population was split evenly across the two census tabulation areas. Meanwhile, the Asian population grew by 211% (1,927) but remained a small minority, and the small population of all other races increased by 4% (142). The entirety of Community District 10, which comprises Central Harlem, had 116,345 inhabitants as of NYC Health's 2018 Community Health Profile, with an average life expectancy of 76.2 years. [2]:2, 20 This is lower than the median life expectancy of 81.2 for all New York City neighborhoods. 84 Most inhabitants are children and middle-aged adults: 21% are between the ages of 017, while 35% are between 2544, and 24% between 4564. The ratio of college-aged and elderly residents was lower, at 10% and 11% respectively. [3] In 2018, an estimated 21% of Community District 10 residents lived in poverty, compared to 14% in all of Manhattan and 20% in all of New York City.

Around 12% of residents were unemployed, compared to 7% in Manhattan and 9% in New York City. Rent burden, or the percentage of residents who have difficulty paying their rent, is 48% in Community District 10, compared to the boroughwide and citywide rates of 45% and 51% respectively. Based on this calculation, as of 2018, Community District 10 is considered to be gentrifying: according to the Community Health Profile, the district was low-income in 1990 and has seen above-median rent growth up to 2010.

In 2010, the population of West Harlem was 110,193. [116] West Harlem, consisting of Manhattanville and Hamilton Heights, is predominately Hispanic / Latino, while African Americans make up about a quarter of the West Harlem population. In 2010, the population of East Harlem was 120,000. [117] East Harlem originally formed as a predominantly Italian American neighborhood. [118] The area began its transition from Italian Harlem to Spanish Harlem when Puerto Rican migration began after World War II, [119] though in recent decades, many Dominican, Mexican and Salvadorean immigrants have also settled in East Harlem.

[120] East Harlem is now predominantly Hispanic / Latino, with a significant Black presence. NYPD Police Service Area 6, which serves NYCHA developments in greater Harlem. Central Harlem is patrolled by two precincts of the New York City Police Department (NYPD). [121] Central Harlem North is covered by the 32nd Precinct, located at 250 West 135th Street, [122] while Central Harlem South is patrolled by the 28th Precinct, located at 22712289 Eighth Avenue. The 28th Precinct has a lower crime rate than it did in the 1990s, with crimes across all categories having decreased by 76.0% between 1990 and 2019.

The precinct reported 5 murders, 11 rapes, 163 robberies, 235 felony assaults, 90 burglaries, 348 grand larcenies, and 28 grand larcenies auto in 2019. [124] Of the five major violent felonies (murder, rape, felony assault, robbery, and burglary), the 28th Precinct had a rate of 1,125 crimes per 100,000 residents in 2019, compared to the boroughwide average of 632 crimes per 100,000 and the citywide average of 572 crimes per 100,000.

The crime rate in the 32nd Precinct has also decreased since the 1990s, with crimes across all categories having decreased by 75.7% between 1990 and 2019. The precinct reported 10 murders, 25 rapes, 219 robberies, 375 felony assaults, 110 burglaries, 315 grand larcenies, and 34 grand larcenies auto in 2019. [128] Of the five major violent felonies (murder, rape, felony assault, robbery, and burglary), the 32nd Precinct had a rate of 1,042 crimes per 100,000 residents in 2019, compared to the boroughwide average of 632 crimes per 100,000 and the citywide average of 572 crimes per 100,000.

As of 2018, Community District 10 has a non-fatal assault hospitalization rate of 116 per 100,000 people, compared to the boroughwide rate of 49 per 100,000 and the citywide rate of 59 per 100,000. Its incarceration rate is 1,347 per 100,000 people, the second-highest in the city, compared to the boroughwide rate of 407 per 100,000 and the citywide rate of 425 per 100,000.

In 2019, the highest concentration of both felony assaults in Central Harlem was around the intersection of 125th Street and Malcolm X Boulevard, where there were 25 felony assaults and 18 robberies. The Harlem River Drive by the Ralph J. Rangel Houses was also a hotspot, with 23 felony assaults and 10 robberies.

Main article: Crime in Harlem. In the early 20th century, Harlem was a stronghold of the Italian Mafia. As the ethnic composition of the neighborhood changed, black criminals began to organize themselves similarly. However, rather than compete with the established mobs, gangs concentrated on the "policy racket", also called the numbers game, or bolita in East Harlem.

This was a gambling scheme similar to a lottery that could be played, illegally, from countless locations around Harlem. According to Francis Ianni, By 1925 there were thirty black policy banks in Harlem, several of them large enough to collect bets in an area of twenty city blocks and across three or four avenues.

[130] These bosses became financial powerhouses, providing capital for loans for those who could not qualify for them from traditional financial institutions, and investing in legitimate businesses and real estate. One of the powerful early numbers bosses was a woman, Madame Stephanie St. Clair, who fought gun battles with mobster Dutch Schultz over control of the lucrative trade. [132] The practice continues on a smaller scale among those who prefer the numbers tradition or who prefer to trust their local numbers bank to the state. Statistics from 1940 show about 100 murders per year in Harlem, "but rape is very rare".

[133] By 1950, essentially all of the whites had left Harlem and by 1960, much of the black middle class had departed. At the same time, control of organized crime shifted from Italian syndicates to local black, Puerto Rican, and Cuban groups that were somewhat less formally organized. [129] At the time of the 1964 riots, the drug addiction rate in Harlem was ten times higher than the New York City average, and twelve times higher than the United States as a whole. Of the 30,000 drug addicts then estimated to live in New York City, 15,000 to 20,000 lived in Harlem.

Property crime was pervasive, and the murder rate was six times higher than New York's average. Half of the children in Harlem grew up with one parent, or none, and lack of supervision contributed to juvenile delinquency; between 1953 and 1962, the crime rate among young people increased throughout New York City, but was consistently 50% higher in Harlem than in New York City as a whole. Injecting heroin grew in popularity in Harlem through the 1950s and 1960s, though the use of this drug then leveled off. In the 1980s, use of crack cocaine became widespread, which produced collateral crime as addicts stole to finance their purchasing of additional drugs, and as dealers fought for the right to sell in particular regions, or over deals gone bad.

With the end of the "crack wars" in the mid-1990s, and with the initiation of aggressive policing under mayors David Dinkins and his successor Rudy Giuliani, crime in Harlem plummeted. Compared to in 1981, when 6,500 robberies were reported in Harlem, reports of robberies dropped to 4,800 in 1990; to 1,700 in 2000; and to 1,100 in 2010. [136] Within the 28th and 32nd precincts, there have been similar changes in all categories of crimes tracked by the NYPD. There are many gangs in Harlem, often based in housing projects; when one gang member is killed by another gang, revenge violence erupts which can last for years. [137] In addition, the East Harlem Purple Gang of the 1970s, which operated in East Harlem and surroundings, was an Italian American group of hitmen and heroin dealers.

Harlem and its gangsters have a strong link to hip hop, rap and R&B culture in the United States, and many successful rappers in the music industry came from gangs in Harlem. [139] Gangster rap, which has its origins in the late 1980s, often has lyrics that are "misogynistic or that glamorize violence", glamorizing guns, drugs and easy women in Harlem and New York City.

Central Harlem is served by four New York City Fire Department (FDNY) fire stations:[141]. 40 415 West 125th Street[142].

26 1367 5th Avenue[143]. 30 111 West 133rd Street[144]. 28/Battalion 16 248 West 143rd Street[145]. Five additional firehouses are located in West and East Harlem. West Harlem contains Engine Co. 23, while East Harlem contains Engine Co. Preterm and teenage births are more common in Central Harlem than in other places citywide. In Central Harlem, there were 103 preterm births per 1,000 live births (compared to 87 per 1,000 citywide), and 23 teenage births per 1,000 live births (compared to 19.3 per 1,000 citywide), though the teenage birth rate is based on a small sample size. [2]:11 Central Harlem has a low population of residents who are uninsured. In 2018, this population of uninsured residents was estimated to be 8%, less than the citywide rate of 12%. The concentration of fine particulate matter, the deadliest type of air pollutant, in Central Harlem is 0.0079 milligrams per cubic metre (7.9×109 oz/cu ft), slightly more than the city average.

[2]:9 Ten percent of Central Harlem residents are smokers, which is less than the city average of 14% of residents being smokers. [2]:13 In Central Harlem, 34% of residents are obese, 12% are diabetic, and 35% have high blood pressure, the highest rates in the citycompared to the citywide averages of 24%, 11%, and 28% respectively.

[2]:16 In addition, 21% of children are obese, compared to the citywide average of 20%. Eighty-four percent of residents eat some fruits and vegetables every day, which is less than the city's average of 87%. In 2018, 79% of residents described their health as "good, " "very good, " or "excellent, " more than the city's average of 78%. [2]:13 For every supermarket in Central Harlem, there are 11 bodegas.

The nearest major hospital is NYC Health + Hospitals/Harlem in north-central Harlem. The population health of Central Harlem is closely linked to influential social factors on health, also known as social determinants of health, and the impact of structural racism on the neighborhood. The impact of discriminatory policies such as redlining have contributed to residents' bearing worse health outcomes in comparison to the average New York city resident. This applies to life expectancy, poverty rates, environmental neighborhood health, housing quality, and childhood and adult asthma rates. Additionally, the health of Central Harlem residents are linked to their experience of racism.

[148][149] Public health and scientific research studies have found evidence that experiencing racism creates and exacerbates chronic stress that can contribute to major causes of death, particularly for African-American and Hispanic populations in the United States, like cardiovascular diseases. Certain health disparities between Central Harlem and the rest of New York City can be attributed to'avoidable causes' such as substandard housing quality, poverty, and law enforcement violence all of which are issues identified by the American Public Health Association as key social determinants of health. These deaths that can be attributed to avoidable causes are known as "avertable deaths" of "excess mortality'"in public health. Access to affordable housing and employment opportunities with fair wages and benefits are closely associated with good health.

[154] Public health leaders have shown that inadequate housing qualities is linked to poor health. [155] As Central Harlem also bears the effects of racial segregation, public health researchers claim that racial segregation is also linked to substandard housing and exposure to pollutants and toxins. These associations have been documented to increase individual risk of chronic diseases and adverse birth outcomes. [110] Historical income segregation via redlining also positions residents to be more exposed to risks that contribute to adverse mental health status, inadequate access to healthy foods, asthma triggers, and lead exposure. Drew Hamilton Houses, a large low-income NYCHA housing project in Central Harlem.

Asthma is more common in children and adults in Central Harlem, compared to other New York City neighborhoods. [156] The factors that can increase risk of childhood and adult asthma are associated with substandard housing conditions. [157] Substandard housing conditions are water leaks, cracks and holes, inadequate heating, presence of mice or rates, peeling paint and can include the presence of mold, moisture, dust mites. [158] In 2014, Central Harlem tracked worse in regards to home maintenance conditions, compared to the average rates Manhattan and New York City.

Twenty percent of homes had cracks or holes; 21% had leaks and 19% had three or more maintenance deficiencies. Adequate housing is defined as housing that is free from heating breakdowns, cracks, holes, peeling paint and other defects.

Housing conditions in Central Harlem reveal that only 37% of its renter-occupied homes were adequately maintained by landlords in 2014. Meanwhile, 25% of Central Harlem households and 27% of adults reported seeing cockroaches (a potential trigger for asthma), a rate higher than the city average. Neighborhood conditions are also indicators of population: in 2014, Central Harlem had 32 per 100,000 people hospitalized due to pedestrian injuries, higher than Manhattan's and the city's average. Additionally, poverty levels can indicate one's risk of vulnerability to asthma.

In 2016, Central Harlem saw 565 children aged 517 years old per 10,000 residents visiting emergency departments for Asthma emergencies, over twice both Manhattan's and the citywide rates. The rate of childhood asthma hospitalization in 2016 was more than twice that of Manhattan and New York City, with 62 hospitalizations per 10,000 residents. [156] Rates of adult hospitalization due to asthma in Central Harlem trends higher in comparison to other neighborhoods. In 2016, 270 adults per 10,000 residents visited the emergency department due to asthma, close to three times the average rates of both Manhattan and New York City. Health outcomes for men have generally been worse for those for women.

Infant mortality was 124 per thousand in 1928, meaning that 12.4% of infants would die. [159] By 1940, infant mortality in Harlem was 5%, and the death rate from disease generally was twice that of the rest of New York. Tuberculosis was the main killer, and four times as prevalent among Harlem citizens than among the rest of New York's population. A 1990 study of life expectancy of teenagers in Harlem reported that 15-year-old girls in Harlem had a 65% chance of surviving to the age of 65, about the same as women in Pakistan. Fifteen-year-old men in Harlem, on the other hand, had a 37% chance of surviving to 65, about the same as men in Angola; for men, the survival rate beyond the age of 40 was lower in Harlem than Bangladesh. [160] Infectious diseases and diseases of the circulatory system were to blame, with a variety of contributing factors, including consumption of the deep-fried foods traditional to the South, which may contribute to heart disease. Icahn Medical Institute of the Mt. Harlem is located within five primary ZIP Codes.

From north to south, they are 10026 (from 110th to 120th Streets), 10027 (from 120th to 133rd Streets), 10037 (east of Lenox Avenue and north of 130th Street), 10030 (west of Lenox Avenue from 133rd to 145th Streets) and 10039 (from 145th to 155th Streets). Harlem also includes parts of ZIP Codes 10031, 10032, and 10035. [161] The United States Postal Service operates five post offices in Harlem. Morningside Station 232 West 116th Street[162]. Manhattanville Station and Morningside Annex 365 West 125th Street[163].

College Station 217 West 140th Street[164]. Colonial Park Station 99 Macombs Place[165]. Lincoln Station 2266 5th Avenue[166]. Main article: Education in Harlem. Central Harlem generally has a similar rate of college-educated residents to the rest of the city. While 42% of residents age 25 and older have a college education or higher, 19% have less than a high school education and 39% are high school graduates or have some college education. By contrast, 64% of Manhattan residents and 43% of city residents have a college education or higher.

[2]:6 The percentage of Central Harlem students excelling in math rose from 21% in 2000 to 48% in 2011, and reading achievement increased from 29% to 37% during the same time period. Central Harlem's rate of elementary school student absenteeism is higher than the rest of New York City.

In Central Harlem, 25% of elementary school students missed twenty or more days per school year, more than the citywide average of 20%. 55[2]:6 Additionally, 64% of high school students in Central Harlem graduate on time, less than the citywide average of 75%. The New York City Department of Education operates the following public elementary schools in Central Harlem:[168]. PS 76 A Phillip Randolph (grades PK-8)[169].

PS 92 Mary Mcleod Bethune (grades PK-5)[170]. PS 123 Mahalia Jackson (grades PK-8)[171].

PS 149 Sojourner Truth (grades PK-8)[172]. PS 154 Harriet Tubman (grades PK-5)[173].

PS 175 Henry H Garnet (grades PK-5)[174]. PS 185 the Early Childhood Discovery and Design Magnet School (grades PK-2)[175].

PS 194 Countee Cullen (grades PK-5)[176]. PS 197 John B Russwurm (grades PK-5)[177]. PS 200 The James Mccune Smith School (grades PK-5)[178]. PS 242 The Young Diplomats Magnet School (grades PK-5)[179]. Stem Institute of Manhattan (grades K-5)[180]. Thurgood Marshall Academy Lower School (grades K-5)[181]. The following middle and high schools are located in Central Harlem:[168]. Frederick Douglass Academy (grades 6-12)[182]. Frederick Douglass Academy II Secondary School (grades 6-12)[183].

Mott Hall High School (grades 9-12)[184]. Thurgood Marshall Academy For Learning And Social Change (grades 6-12)[185]. Wadleigh Secondary School for the Performing and Visual Arts (grades 6-12)[186]. Harlem has a high rate of charter school enrollment: a fifth of students were enrolled in charter schools in 2010. [187] By 2017, that proportion had increased to 36%, about the same that attended their zoned public schools.

Another 20% of Harlem students were enrolled in public schools elsewhere. [188] In 2016, there were four charter-school enrollment applications for every available seat at a charter school in Manhattan. The CUNY Graduate School of Public Health and Health Policy, New York College of Podiatric Medicine, City College of New York, and Touro College of Osteopathic Medicine, in addition to a branch of College of New Rochelle, are all located in Harlem.

The Morningside Heights and Manhattanville campuses of Columbia University are located just west of Harlem. New York Public Library, Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture. The New York Public Library (NYPL) operates four circulating branches and one research branch in Harlem, as well as several others in adjacent neighborhoods.

The Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, a research branch, is located at 515 Malcolm X Boulevard. It is housed in a Carnegie library structure that opened in 1905, though the branch itself was established in 1925 based on a collection from its namesake, Arturo Alfonso Schomburg.

The Schomburg Center is a National Historic Landmark, as well as a city designated landmark and a National Register of Historic Places (NRHP)-listed site. The Countee Cullen branch is located at 104 West 136th Street. It was originally housed in the building now occupied by the Schomburg Center. The current structure, in 1941, is an annex of the Schomburg building.

The Harry Belafonte 115th Street branch is located at 203 West 115th Street. The three-story Carnegie library, built in 1908, is both a city designated landmark and an NRHP-listed site.

It was renamed for the entertainer and Harlem resident Harry Belafonte in 2017. The Harlem branch is located at 9 West 124th Street. It is one of the oldest libraries in the NYPL system, having operated in Harlem since 1826. The current three-story Carnegie library building was built in 1909 and renovated in 2004. The Macomb's Bridge branch is located at 2633 Adam Clayton Powell Jr. The branch opened in 1955 at 2650 Adam Clayton Powell Jr. Boulevard, inside the Harlem River Houses, and was the smallest NYPL branch at 685 square feet (63.6 m2). In January 2020, the branch moved across the street to a larger space. Other nearby branches include the 125th Street and Aguilar branches in East Harlem; the Morningside Heights branch in Morningside Heights; and the George Bruce and Hamilton Grange branches in western Harlem. Bridges spanning the Harlem River between Harlem to the left and the Bronx to the right. Harlem125th Street station on the Metro-North Railroad. The Harlem River separates the Bronx and Manhattan, necessitating several spans between the two New York City boroughs.

Five free bridges connect Harlem and the Bronx: the Willis Avenue Bridge (for northbound traffic only), Third Avenue Bridge (for southbound traffic only), Madison Avenue Bridge, 145th Street Bridge, and Macombs Dam Bridge. In East Harlem, the Wards Island Bridge, also known as the 103rd Street Footbridge, connects Manhattan with Wards Island. The Triborough Bridge is a complex of three separate bridges that offers connections between Queens, East Harlem, and the Bronx. Public transportation service is provided by the Metropolitan Transportation Authority. This includes the New York City Subway and MTA Regional Bus Operations.

Some Bronx local routes also serve Manhattan, providing customers with access between both boroughs. [197][198] Metro-North Railroad has a commuter rail station at Harlem125th Street, serving trains to the Lower Hudson Valley and Connecticut. Harlem is served by the following subway lines. IRT Lenox Avenue Line (2 and 3 trains) between Central Park North110th Street and Harlem148th Street[200].

IND Eighth Avenue Line (A, B, C, and D trains) between Cathedral Parkway110th Street and 155th Street[200]. IND Concourse Line (B and D trains) at 155th Street[200]. In addition, several other lines stop nearby. IRT BroadwaySeventh Avenue Line (1 train) between Cathedral Parkway110th Street and 145th Street, serving western Harlem[200]. IRT Lexington Avenue Line 4, 5, 6, and.

Trains between 96th Street and 125th Street, serving East Harlem[200]. Phase 2 of the Second Avenue Subway is also planned to serve East Harlem, with stops at 106th Street, 116th Street, and Harlem125th Street. Harlem is served by numerous local bus routes operated by MTA Regional Bus Operations:[198].

Bx6 and Bx6 SBS along 155th Street. M2 along Seventh Avenue, Central Park North, and Fifth/Madison Avenues. M3 along Manhattan Avenue, Central Park North, and Fifth/Madison Avenues. M4 along Broadway, Central Park North, and Fifth/Madison Avenues.

M60 SBS, M100, M101 and Bx15 along 125th Street. M7 and M102 along Lenox Avenue and 116th Street. M10 along Frederick Douglass Boulevard. Routes that run near Harlem, but do not stop in the neighborhood, include:[198].

M98 and M103 along Third/Lexington Avenues. George Washington Carver (1860s[1][2] January 5, 1943) was an American agricultural scientist and inventor.

He promoted alternative crops to cotton and methods to prevent soil depletion. [3] He was the most prominent black scientist of the early 20th century. While a professor at Tuskegee Institute, Carver developed techniques to improve soils depleted by repeated plantings of cotton.

He wanted poor farmers to grow other crops, such as peanuts and sweet potatoes, as a source of their own food and to improve their quality of life. The most popular of his 44 practical bulletins for farmers contained 105 food recipes using peanuts. Although he spent years developing and promoting numerous products made from peanuts, none became commercially successful. Apart from his work to improve the lives of farmers, Carver was also a leader in promoting environmentalism. [5] He received numerous honors for his work, including the Spingarn Medal of the NAACP.

In an era of high racial polarization, his fame reached beyond the black community. He was widely recognized and praised in the white community for his many achievements and talents. In 1941, Time magazine dubbed Carver a "Black Leonardo". The farm house of Moses Carver (built in 1881), near the place where George Carver lived as a youth.

Carver was born into slavery, in Diamond Grove (now Diamond), Newton County, Missouri, near Crystal Place, sometime in the early or mid 1860s. The date of his birth is uncertain and was not known to Carver; but it was before slavery was abolished in Missouri, which occurred in January 1865, during the American Civil War. When George was a week old, he, a sister, and his mother were kidnapped by night raiders from Arkansas. George's brother, James, was rushed to safety from the kidnappers. Moses Carver hired John Bentley to find them, but he found only the infant George.

Moses negotiated with the raiders to gain the boy's return, and rewarded Bentley. After slavery was abolished, Moses Carver and his wife, Susan, raised George and his older brother, James, as their own children.

They encouraged George to continue his intellectual pursuits, and "Aunt Susan" taught him the basics of reading and writing. Black people were not allowed at the public school in Diamond Grove. George decided to go to a school for black children 10 miles (16 km) south, in Neosho.

When he reached the town, he found the school closed for the night. He slept in a nearby barn.

By his own account, the next morning he met a kind woman, Mariah Watkins, from whom he wished to rent a room. When he identified himself as "Carver's George", as he had done his whole life, she replied that from now on his name was "George Carver". George liked Mariah Watkins, and her words "You must learn all you can, then go back out into the world and give your learning back to the people" made a great impression on him. At age 13, because he wanted to attend the academy there, he moved to the home of another foster family, in Fort Scott, Kansas. After witnessing the killing of a black man by a group of whites, Carver left the city. He attended a series of schools before earning his diploma at Minneapolis High School in Minneapolis, Kansas. At work in his laboratory.

Carver applied to several colleges before being accepted at Highland University in Highland, Kansas. When he arrived, however, they refused to let him attend because of his race. [10][11] In August 1886, Carver traveled by wagon with J.

Beeler from Highland to Eden Township in Ness County, Kansas. [12] He homesteaded a claim[13] near Beeler, where he maintained a small conservatory of plants and flowers and a geological collection.

He manually plowed 17 acres (69,000 m2) of the claim, planting rice, corn, Indian corn and garden produce, as well as various fruit trees, forest trees, and shrubbery. By June he left the area.

[12] In 1890, Carver started studying art and piano at Simpson College in Indianola, Iowa. [14] His art teacher, Etta Budd, recognized Carver's talent for painting flowers and plants; she encouraged him to study botany at Iowa State Agricultural College (now Iowa State University) in Ames. When he began there in 1891, he was the first black student at Iowa State. [15] Carver's Bachelor's thesis for a degree in Agriculture was "Plants as Modified by Man", dated 1894.

[16][17] Iowa State University professors Joseph Budd and Louis Pammel convinced Carver to continue there for his master's degree. [15] Carver did research at the Iowa Experiment Station under Pammel during the next two years.

His work at the experiment station in plant pathology and mycology first gained him national recognition and respect as a botanist. Carver received his master of science degree in 1896. [17] Carver taught as the first black faculty member at Iowa State. Despite occasionally being addressed as "doctor, " Carver never received an official doctorate, and in a personal communication with Louis H. Pammel, he noted that it was a "misnomer", given to him by others due to his abilities and their assumptions about his education.

[18] With that said, both Simpson College and Selma University awarded him honorary doctorates of science in his lifetime. [18][19] Iowa State later awarded him a doctorate of humane letters posthumously in 1994. George Washington Carver (front row, center) poses with fellow faculty of Tuskegee Institute in this c. 1902 photograph taken by Frances Benjamin Johnston. Washington, the first principal and president of the Tuskegee Institute (now Tuskegee University), invited Carver to head its Agriculture Department.

Carver taught there for 47 years, developing the department into a strong research center and working with two additional college presidents during his tenure. He taught methods of crop rotation, introduced several alternative cash crops for farmers that would also improve the soil of areas heavily cultivated in cotton, initiated research into crop products (chemurgy), and taught generations of black students farming techniques for self-sufficiency. Carver designed a mobile classroom to take education out to farmers. He called it a "Jesup wagon" after the New York financier and philanthropist Morris Ketchum Jesup, who provided funding to support the program. To recruit Carver to Tuskegee, Washington gave him an above average salary and two rooms for his personal use, although both concessions were resented by some other faculty.

Because he had earned a master's in a scientific field from a "white" institution, some faculty perceived him as arrogant. [22] Unmarried faculty members normally had to share rooms, with two to a room, in the spartan early days of the institute. He had to manage the production and sale of farm products to generate revenue for the Institute.

He soon proved to be a poor administrator. In 1900, Carver complained that the physical work and the letter-writing required were too much. [23] In 1904, an Institute committee reported that Carver's reports on yields from the poultry yard were exaggerated, and Washington confronted Carver about the issue.

Carver replied in writing, Now to be branded as a liar and party to such hellish deception it is more than I can bear, and if your committee feel that I have willfully lied or [was] party to such lies as were told my resignation is at your disposal. [24] During Washington's last five years at Tuskegee, Carver submitted or threatened his resignation several times: when the administration reorganized the agriculture programs, [25] when he disliked a teaching assignment, [26] to manage an experiment station elsewhere, [27] and when he did not get summer teaching assignments in 191314. [28][29] In each case, Washington smoothed things over. Photograph of George Washington Carver taken by Frances Benjamin Johnston in 1906. Carver started his academic career as a researcher and teacher.

In 1911, Washington wrote a letter to him complaining that Carver had not followed orders to plant particular crops at the experiment station. This revealed Washington's micro-management of Carver's department, which he had headed for more than 10 years by then. Washington at the same time refused Carver's requests for a new laboratory, research supplies for his exclusive use, and respite from teaching classes. Washington praised Carver's abilities in teaching and original research but said about his administrative skills. When it comes to the organization of classes, the ability required to secure a properly organized and large school or section of a school, you are wanting in ability.

When it comes to the matter of practical farm managing which will secure definite, practical, financial results, you are wanting again in ability. In 1911, Carver complained that his laboratory had not received the equipment which Washington had promised 11 months before.

He also complained about Institute committee meetings. [30] Washington praised Carver in his 1911 memoir, My Larger Education: Being Chapters from My Experience. [32] After Washington died in 1915, his successor made fewer demands on Carver for administrative tasks.

While a professor at Tuskegee, Carver joined the Gamma Sigma chapter of Phi Beta Sigma fraternity. He spoke at the 1930 Conclave that was held at Tuskegee, Alabama, in which he delivered a powerful and emotional speech to the men in attendance. From 1915 to 1923, Carver concentrated on researching and experimenting with new uses for peanuts, sweet potatoes, soybeans, pecans, and other crops, as well as having his assistants research and compile existing uses. [34] This work, and especially his speaking to a national conference of the Peanut Growers Association in 1920 and in testimony before Congress in 1921 to support passage of a tariff on imported peanuts, brought him wide publicity and increasing renown.

In these years, he became one of the most well-known African Americans of his time. One of America's great scientists. World War II poster circa 1943. Carver developed techniques to improve soils depleted by repeated plantings of cotton. Together with other agricultural experts, he urged farmers to restore nitrogen to their soils by practicing systematic crop rotation: alternating cotton crops with plantings of sweet potatoes or legumes (such as peanuts, soybeans and cowpeas).

These crops both restored nitrogen to the soil and were good for human consumption. Following the crop rotation practice resulted in improved cotton yields and gave farmers alternative cash crops. To train farmers to successfully rotate and cultivate the new crops, Carver developed an agricultural extension program for Alabama that was similar to the one at Iowa State. To encourage better nutrition in the South, he widely distributed recipes using the alternative crops.

Additionally, he founded an industrial research laboratory, where he and assistants worked to popularize the new crops by developing hundreds of applications for them. They did original research as well as promoting applications and recipes, which they collected from others. Carver distributed his information as agricultural bulletins. Peanut specimen collected by Carver. Carver's work was known by officials in the national capital before he became a public figure.

President Theodore Roosevelt publicly admired his work. Former professors of Carver's from Iowa State University were appointed to positions as Secretary of Agriculture: James Wilson, a former dean and professor of Carver's, served from 1897 to 1913.

Henry Cantwell Wallace served from 1921 to 1924. He knew Carver personally because his son Henry A. Wallace and the researcher were friends.

[35] The younger Wallace served as U. Secretary of Agriculture from 1933 to 1940, and as Franklin Delano Roosevelt's vice president from 1941 to 1945. The American industrialist, farmer, and inventor William C. Edenborn of Winn Parish, Louisiana, grew peanuts on his demonstration farm. In 1916, Carver was made a member of the Royal Society of Arts in England, one of only a handful of Americans at that time to receive this honor.

Carver's promotion of peanuts gained him the most notice. In 1919, Carver wrote to a peanut company about the potential he saw for peanut milk. Both he and the peanut industry seemed unaware that in 1917 William Melhuish had secured US 1243855, issued 1917-10-23 for a milk substitute made from peanuts and soybeans. The United Peanut Associations of America invited Carver to speak at their 1920 convention. He discussed "The Possibilities of the Peanut" and exhibited 145 peanut products. Peanut farmers were being undercut by low prices on imported peanuts from the Republic of China. In 1921, peanut farmers and industry representatives planned to appear at Congressional hearings to ask for a tariff. Based on the quality of Carver's presentation at their convention, they asked the African-American professor to testify on the tariff issue before the Ways and Means Committee of the United States House of Representatives.

Due to segregation, it was highly unusual for an African American to appear as an expert witness at Congress representing European-American industry and farmers. Southern congressmen, reportedly shocked at Carver's arriving to testify, were said to have mocked him.

[citation needed] As he talked about the importance of the peanut and its uses for American agriculture, the committee members repeatedly extended the time for his testimony. The FordneyMcCumber Tariff of 1922 was passed including one on imported peanuts. Carver's testifying to Congress made him widely known as a public figure. United States Farm Security Administration portrait, March 1942.

During the last two decades of his life, Carver seemed to enjoy his celebrity status. He was often on the road promoting Tuskegee University, peanuts, and racial harmony. Although he only published six agricultural bulletins after 1922, he published articles in peanut industry journals and wrote a syndicated newspaper column, "Professor Carver's Advice". Business leaders came to seek his help, and he often responded with free advice.

Three American presidentsTheodore Roosevelt, Calvin Coolidge and Franklin Rooseveltmet with him, and the Crown Prince of Sweden studied with him for three weeks. From 1923 to 1933, Carver toured white Southern colleges for the Commission on Interracial Cooperation. With his increasing notability, Carver became the subject of biographies and articles. Merritt contacted him for his biography published in 1929.

At present not a great deal has been done to utilize Dr. He says that he is merely scratching the surface of scientific investigations of the possibilities of the peanut and other Southern products.

In 1932, the writer James Saxon Childers wrote that Carver and his peanut products were almost solely responsible for the rise in U. Peanut production after the boll weevil devastated the American cotton crop beginning about 1892. His article, "A Boy Who Was Traded for a Horse" (1932), in The American Magazine, and its 1937 reprint in Reader's Digest, contributed to this myth about Carver's influence. Other popular media tended to exaggerate Carver's impact on the peanut industry.

From 1933 to 1935, Carver worked to develop peanut oil massages to treat infantile paralysis (polio). [34] Ultimately, researchers found that the massages, not the peanut oil, provided the benefits of maintaining some mobility to paralyzed limbs. From 1935 to 1937, Carver participated in the USDA Disease Survey. Carver had specialized in plant diseases and mycology for his master's degree. In 1937, Carver attended two chemurgy conferences, an emerging field in the 1930s, during the Great Depression and the Dust Bowl, concerned with developing new products from crops. [34] He was invited by Henry Ford to speak at the conference held in Dearborn, Michigan, and they developed a friendship. That year Carver's health declined, and Ford later installed an elevator at the Tuskegee dormitory where Carver lived, so that the elderly man would not have to climb stairs. Carver had been frugal in his life, and in his seventies he established a legacy by creating a museum of his work, as well as the George Washington Carver Foundation at Tuskegee in 1938 to continue agricultural research. Austin Curtis - Scientist successor to Dr. At age 40, he began a courtship with Sarah L. Hunt, an elementary school teacher and the sister-in-law of Warren Logan, Treasurer of Tuskegee Institute. This lasted three years until she took a teaching job in California.

[40] In her 2015 biography, Christina Vella reviews his relationships and suggests that Carver was bisexual and constrained by mores of his historic period. When he was 70, Carver established a friendship and research partnership with the scientist Austin W.

This young black man, a graduate of Cornell University, had some teaching experience before coming to Tuskegee. Carver bequeathed to Curtis his royalties from an authorized 1943 biography by Rackham Holt. [42] After Carver died in 1943, Curtis was fired from Tuskegee Institute.

He left Alabama and resettled in Detroit. Painting by Betsy Graves Reyneau.

Upon returning home one day, Carver took a bad fall down a flight of stairs; he was found unconscious by a maid who took him to a hospital. Carver died January 5, 1943, at the age of 78 from complications (anemia) resulting from this fall.

He was buried next to Booker T. On his grave was written, He could have added fortune to fame, but caring for neither, he found happiness and honor in being helpful to the world. This section may lend undue weight to certain ideas, incidents, or controversies. Please help to create a more balanced presentation. Discuss and resolve this issue before removing this message.

Even as an adult Carver spoke with a high pitch. McMurry noted that he "was a frail and sickly child" who suffered from a severe case of whooping cough and frequent bouts of what was called croup. "[45] McMurry contested the diagnosis of croup, holding rather that "His stunted growth and apparently impaired vocal cords suggest instead tubercular or pneumococcal infection. Frequent infections of that nature could have caused the growth of polyps on the larynx and may have resulted from a gamma globulin deficiency. Until his death the high pitch of his voice startled all who met him, and he suffered from frequent chest congestion and loss of voice. There are some rumors that Carver was castrated. Harley Flack and Edmund Pellegrino's book African-American Perspectives on Biomedical Ethics (1992) reports that Carver was castrated by a physician at age 11 at the request of his white master.

A friend of Carver's was told by the autopsy doctors according to Carver's biographer Peter Burchard, who told this to Iowa Public Radio in 2010 that Carver had only scar tissue instead of testicles. [46] If it is true that he was castrated before puberty, it would explain his high voice, but it would also suggest that he should not have been able to grow his beard. Carver believed he could have faith both in God and science and integrated them into his life. He testified on many occasions that his faith in Jesus was the only mechanism by which he could effectively pursue and perform the art of science.

[47] Carver became a Christian when he was still a young boy, as he wrote in connection to his conversion in 1931:[48]. I was just a mere boy when converted, hardly ten years old. There isn't much of a story to it. God just came into my heart one afternoon while I was alone in the'loft' of our big barn while I was shelling corn to carry to the mill to be ground into meal. A dear little white boy, one of our neighbors, about my age came by one Saturday morning, and in talking and playing he told me he was going to Sunday school tomorrow morning.

I was eager to know what a Sunday school was. He said they sang hymns and prayed.

I asked him what prayer was and what they said. I do not remember what he said; only remember that as soon as he left I climbed up into the'loft,' knelt down by the barrel of corn and prayed as best I could. I do not remember what I said.

I only recall that I felt so good that I prayed several times before I quit. My brother and myself were the only colored children in that neighborhood and of course, we could not go to church or Sunday school, or school of any kind. That was my simple conversion, and I have tried to keep the faith.

Carver; Letter to Isabelle Coleman; July 24, 1931. He was not expected to live past his 21st birthday due to failing health. He lived well past the age of 21, and his belief deepened as a result.

[32] Throughout his career, he always found friendship with other Christians. He relied on them especially when criticized by the scientific community and media regarding his research methodology. Carver viewed faith in Jesus Christ as a means of destroying both barriers of racial disharmony and social stratification. [50] He was as concerned with his students' character development as he was with their intellectual development. He compiled a list of eight cardinal virtues for his students to strive toward.

A monument to Carver at the Missouri Botanical Garden in St. Be clean both inside and out. Neither look up to the rich nor down on the poor.

Lose, if need be, without squealing. Always be considerate of women, children, and older people. Be too brave to lie.

Be too generous to cheat. Take your share of the world and let others take theirs. He regularly portrayed stories by acting them out. [51] He responded to critics with this: When you do the common things in life in an uncommon way, you will command the attention of the world. 1923, Spingarn Medal from the NAACP, awarded annually for outstanding achievement. 1928, honorary doctorate from Simpson College. 1939, the Roosevelt Medal for Outstanding Contribution to Southern Agriculture. 1940, Carver established the George Washington Carver Foundation at the Tuskegee Institute. 1941, The George Washington Carver Museum was dedicated at the Tuskegee Institute. 1942, Ford built a replica of Carver's birth cabin at the Henry Ford Museum and Greenfield Village in Dearborn as a tribute. 1942, Ford dedicated a laboratory in Dearborn named after Carver. 1947, George Washington Carver Area High School, named in his honor is opened by the Chicago Public Schools in the Riverdale/Far South Side area of Chicago, Illinois, United States. 1950, George Washington Carver State Park named. Mint features Carver on a 50 cents silver commemorative coin. 1965, Ballistic missile submarine USS George Washington Carver (SSBN-656) launched. 1969, Iowa State University constructs Carver Hall in honor of Carver a graduate of the university. The US Congress designated January 5, the anniversary of his death, as George Washington Carver Recognition Day. 1999, USDA names a portion of its Beltsville, Maryland campus the George Washington Carver Center. 2004, George Washington Carver Bridge, Des Moines, Iowa. 2007, the Missouri Botanical Gardens has a garden area named in his honor, with a commemorative statue and material about his work. Willowbrook Neighborhood Park in Willowbrook, California was renamed George Washington Carver Park in his honor. Schools named for Carver include the George Washington Carver Elementary School of the Compton Unified School District in Los Angeles County, California, [58] the George Washington Carver School of Arts and Science of the Sacramento City Unified School District in Sacramento, California, [59] and the Dr. George Washington Carver Elementary School, a Newark public school in Newark, New Jersey.

Taxa named after him include: Colletotrichum carveri and Metasphaeria carveri, both named by Job Bicknell Ellis and Benjamin Matlack Everhart in 1902;[61] Cercospora carveriana, named by Pier Andrea Saccardo and Domenico Saccardo in 1906;[62] Taphrina carveri named by Anna Eliza Jenkins in 1939;[63] and Pestalotia carveri, named by E. A movement to establish a U. National monument to Carver began before his death.

Because of World War II, such non-war expenditures had been banned by presidential order. Truman sponsored a bill in favor of a monument. In a committee hearing on the bill, one supporter said. The bill is not simply a momentary pause on the part of busy men engaged in the conduct of the war, to do honor to one of the truly great Americans of this country, but it is in essence a blow against the Axis, it is in essence a war measure in the sense that it will further unleash and release the energies of roughly 15,000,000 Negro people in this country for full support of our war effort.

The bill passed unanimously in both houses. On July 14, 1943, [65] President Franklin D. This was the first national monument dedicated to an African American and the first to honor someone other than a president. The 210-acre (0.8 km2) national monument complex includes a bust of Carver, a ¾-mile nature trail, a museum, the 1881 Moses Carver house, and the Carver cemetery. The national monument opened in July 1953.

In December 1947, a fire broke out in the Carver Museum, and much of the collection was damaged. Time magazine reported that all but three of the 48 Carver paintings at the museum were destroyed. His best-known painting, displayed at the World's Columbian Exposition of 1893 in Chicago, depicts a yucca and cactus. This canvas survived and has undergone conservation. It is displayed together with several of his other paintings.

Carver was featured on U. From 1951 to 1954, he was depicted on the commemorative Carver-Washington half dollar coin along with Booker T. A second stamp honoring Carver, of face value 32¢, was issued on 3 February 1998 as part of the Celebrate the Century stamp sheet series.

In 1977, Carver was elected to the Hall of Fame for Great Americans. In 1990, he was inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame. In 1994, Iowa State University awarded Carver a Doctor of Humane Letters. In 2000, Carver was a charter inductee in the USDA Hall of Heroes as the "Father of Chemurgy". In 2002, scholar Molefi Kete Asante listed George Washington Carver as one of 100 Greatest African Americans. In 2005, Carver's research at the Tuskegee Institute was designated a National Historic Chemical Landmark by the American Chemical Society. [69] On February 15, 2005, an episode of Modern Marvels included scenes from within Iowa State University's Food Sciences Building and about Carver's work. In 2005, the Missouri Botanical Garden in St. Louis, Missouri, opened a George Washington Carver garden in his honor, which includes a life-size statue of him. Many institutions continue to honor George Washington Carver.

Dozens of elementary schools and high schools are named after him. National Basketball Association star David Robinson and his wife, Valerie, founded an academy named after Carver; it opened on September 17, 2001, in San Antonio, Texas. [51] The Carver Community Cultural Center, a historic center located in San Antonio, is named for him.

Carver was given credit in popular folklore for many inventions that did not come out of his lab. Three patents (one for cosmetics; US 1522176, issued January 6, 1925, and two for paints and stains; US 1541478, issued June 9, 1925 and US 1632365, issued June 14, 1927) were issued to Carver in 1925 to 1927; however, they were not commercially successful. [70] Aside from these patents and some recipes for food, Carver left no records of formulae or procedures for making his products.

He did not keep a laboratory notebook. Mackintosh notes that, Carver did not explicitly claim that he had personally discovered all the peanut attributes and uses he cited, but he said nothing to prevent his audiences from drawing the inference. [71] Carver's research was intended to produce replacements from common crops for commercial products, which were generally beyond the budget of the small one-horse farmer. A misconception grew that his research on products for subsistence farmers were developed by others commercially to change Southern agriculture. [72][73] Carver's work to provide small farmers with resources for more independence from the cash economy foreshadowed the "appropriate technology" work of E. Dennis Keeney, director of the Leopold Center for Sustainable Agriculture at Iowa State University, wrote in the Leopold Letter (newsletter). Carver worked on improving soils, growing crops with low inputs, and using species that fixed nitrogen (hence, the work on the cowpea and the peanut). Carver wrote in'The Need of Scientific Agriculture in the South': The virgin fertility of our soils and the vast amount of unskilled labor have been more of a curse than a blessing to agriculture. This exhaustive system for cultivation, the destruction of forest, the rapid and almost constant decomposition of organic matter, have made our agricultural problem one requiring more brains than of the North, East or West. Carver worked for years to create a company to market his products. Sales were lackluster and the product was ineffective according to the Food and Drug Administration. [75] Other ventures were The Carver Products Company and the Carvoline Company. Carvoline Antiseptic Hair Dressing was a mix of peanut oil and lanolin. Carvoline Rubbing Oil was a peanut oil for massages. Carver is often mistakenly credited with the invention of peanut butter. [76] By the time Carver published "How to Grow the Peanut and 105 Ways of Preparing it For Human Consumption" in 1916, [77] many methods of preparation of peanut butter had been developed or patented by various pharmacists, doctors and food scientists working in the US and Canada.

[78][79][80] The Aztec were known to have made peanut butter from ground peanuts as early as the 15th century. Canadian pharmacist Marcellus Gilmore Edson was awarded U. Patent 306,727 (for its manufacture) in 1884, 12 years before Carver began his work at Tuskegee.

Carver is also associated with developing sweet potato products. In his 1922 sweet potato bulletin, Carver listed a few dozen recipes, many of which I have copied verbatim from Bulletin No. [83] Carver's records included the following sweet potato products: 73 dyes, 17 wood fillers, 14 candies, 5 library pastes, 5 breakfast foods, 4 starches, 4 flours, and 3 molasses. [84] He also had listings for vinegars, dry coffee and instant coffee, candy, after-dinner mints, orange drops, and lemon drops. During his more than four decades at Tuskegee, Carver's official published work consisted mainly of 44 practical bulletins for farmers. [85] His first bulletin in 1898 was on feeding acorns to farm animals. His final bulletin in 1943 was about the peanut. He also published six bulletins on sweet potatoes, five on cotton, and four on cowpeas. Some other individual bulletins dealt with alfalfa, wild plum, tomato, ornamental plants, corn, poultry, dairying, hogs, preserving meats in hot weather, and nature study in schools.

His most popular bulletin, How to Grow the Peanut and 105 Ways of Preparing it for Human Consumption, was first published in 1916[86] and was reprinted many times. It gave a short overview of peanut crop production and contained a list of recipes from other agricultural bulletins, cookbooks, magazines, and newspapers, such as the Peerless Cookbook, Good Housekeeping, and Berry's Fruit Recipes.

Carver's was far from the first American agricultural bulletin devoted to peanuts, [87][88][89][90][91] but his bulletins did seem to be more popular and widespread than previous ones. The standard author abbreviation Carver is used to indicate this person as the author when citing a botanical name. George Washington Carver Center for Arts and Technology, a public high school in Towson, Maryland.

Carver Junior College, Cocoa, Florida, closed in 1963. List of people on stamps of the United States.

The Notable Names Database states around 1860 citing a census report from 1870: 1864 is frequently cited as his birth year, but in the 1870 census form filed by Moses and Susan Carver he is listed as being ten years old. "About GWC: A Tour of His Life". George Washington Carver National Monument.

Archived from the original on February 1, 2008. George Washington Carver did not know the exact date of his birth, but he thought it was in January 1864 (some evidence indicates July 1861, but not conclusively). He knew it was sometime before slavery was abolished in Missouri, which occurred in January 1865. George Washington Carver: Scientist and Symbol. New York: Oxford University Press.

Hersey, My Work Is That of Conservation: An Environmental Biography of George Washington Carver (2011) online. McMurry (1982), George Washington Carver, pp.

(1994), Profiles of Great Black Americans: Pioneers of Discovery, Coretta Scott King (introduction), New York: Chelsea House Publishers, pp. George Washington Carver: Scientist and Educator. George Washington Carver: Scientist, Inventor, and Teacher. Minneapolis, MN: Compass Point Books. George Washington Carver: A Biography.

George Washington Carver: Scientist, Scholar, and Educator Archived February 12, 2009, at the Wayback Machine from the "Blue Skyways" website of the Kansas State Library. Southeast Quarter of Section 4, Township 19 South, Range 26 West of the Sixth Principal Meridian, Ness County, Kansas. College Archives George Washington Carver, Simpson College website Archived 2008-10-16 at the Wayback Machine.

Digital Collections, Iowa State University. "Plants as Modified by Man". Iowa State University, Office of Admissions. Abrams, Dennis; Adair, Gene (2008). George Washington Carver: In His Own Words, Second Edition.

Columbia, MO: University of Missouri Press. "The first Jesup Wagon", George Washington Carver Museum, Tuskegee University Historic Site, National Park Service website. Harlan, Raymond Smock (eds), The Booker T.

Washington Papers: 1895-98, University of Illinois Press, 1975, Vol. Washington, 18561915 My Larger Education: Being Chapters from My Experience, 1911. Education & Science - Notable Sigmas, Phi Beta Sigma Fraternity, Inc. Archived July 23, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.

Special History Study from the National Park Service website. "The legacy of George Washington Carver--Friends & Colleagues Henry Wallace".

Archived from the original on April 15, 2009. Davies, William Edenborn of Winn Parish, LA. Archived from the original on 16 March 2012. From Captivity to Fame or The Life of George Washington Carver. Linda McMurry Edwards, George Washington Carver: The Life of the Great American Agriculturist, Rosen Publishing Group, 2004, pp.

George Washington Carver: A Biography, Greenwood, 2011, ISBN 0313347964, p. Christina Vella, George Washington Carver: A Life, Southern Biography Series, Louisiana State University Press, 2015. Rackham Holt, George Washington Carver: An American Biography, Garden City, NY: Doubleday, Doran and Company, 1943.

Quote: He [Carver] believed that there was something providential in the coming of this young man [Austin], so intensely serious about his work and extremely competent at it, who was at the same time a genial companion; he was proud of him and loved and depended on him as his own son... Curtis accompanied him everywhere, seeing to his comfort, shielding him from intrusion, and acting as his official mouthpiece. On Curtis' later life, see Austin W. Curtis Interviewed by Toby Fishbein in Detroit, Michigan, March 3, 1979: Transcript in Iowa State University Special Collections, George Washington Carver File, Box 2, RS: 21/7/2.

Spivey, Yolanda (15 September 2014). Man of science-and of God from The New American (January 2004), via TheFreeLibrary.

Carver, George Washington; Kremer, Gary R. George Washington Carver in his own words. Newman correspondence with George Washington Carver, 19261943. Archived from the original on July 8, 2009. History Archived June 7, 2012, at the Wayback Machine from the Carver Academy website. Carver Hall, Iowa State University, Facilities Planning & Management. George Washington Carver Recognition Day. George Washington Carver Recognition Day Celebrated. USDA Names Building Complex to Honor Dr. Archived from the original on June 2, 2016. Los Angeles County, California Department of Parks and Recreation. Archived from the original on March 11, 2015.

"Welcome to Carver Elementary School". Who Is George Washington Carver? Sacramento City Unified School District. Archived from the original on March 30, 2015. George Washington Carver: Where Achievement is Realistic, Obtainable & Infinite!

Sylloge fungorum omnium hucusque cognitorum. "New species of Taphrina on red maple and on silver maple". Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences. Frederick, Lafayette; Warren, Herman; Rossman, Amy; Dominick, Shannon (2014). George Washington Carver to global food security: Historical reflections of Dr.

Carver's Fungal Plant Disease Survey in the southeastern United States. George Washington Carver National Monument U. USDA Hall of Heroes Archived 2006-09-25 at the Wayback Machine.

100 Greatest African Americans: A Biographical Encyclopedia. Ginsberg, Judah (January 27, 2005). "George Washington Carver: Chemist, Teacher, Symbol". "George Washington Carver And The Peanut", American Heritage 28(5): 6673. New York, Oxford University Press. Peanuts: The Illustrious History of the Goober Pea. Chicago: University of Illinois Press. "The Legacy of George Washington Carver", Iowa State University Library. National Peanut Board, Who Invented Peanut Butter? "George Washington Carver", National Peanut Board. Archived from the original on December 27, 2011. Mary Bellis, "The History of Peanut Butter". "History of Peanut Butter" Archived July 27, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. "How the Farmer Can Save His Sweet Potatoes, " Geo. Carver from the Texas A&M University website. Carver Sweet Potato Products Archived 2006-09-04 at the Wayback Machine from the Tuskegee University website. List of Bulletins by George Washington Carver Archived August 30, 2006, at the Wayback Machine from the Tuskegee University website. "How to Grow the Peanut and 105 Ways of Preparing it for Human Consumption", Tuskegee Institute Experimental Station Bulletin 31.

Fayetteville, Arkansas: Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station. Agricultural College, Mississippi: Mississippi Agricultural Experiment Station. My Work Is That of Conservation: An Environmental Biography of George Washington Carver (University of Georgia Press; 2011) 306 pages. Hints and Suggestions to Farmers: George Washington Carver and Rural Conservation in the South.

Environmental History 11#2 (2006): 239-268. George Washington Carver: The Making of a Myth. Journal of Southern History 42#4 (1976): 507-528.

Barry Mackintosh, "George Washington Carver and the Peanut: New Light on a Much-loved Myth", American Heritage 28(5): 6673, 1977. American National Biography Online February 2000.

George Washington Carver: scientist and symbol (Oxford University Press, 1982). 1897 or Thereabouts: George Washington Carver's Own Brief History of His Life.

George Washington Carver National Monument. George Washington Carver: Man's Slave, God's Scientist, (Mott Media, 1981). Federer, George Washington Carver: His Life & Faith in His Own Words, AmeriSearch (January 2003) ISBN 0-9653557-6-4. George Washington Carver: In His Own Words (Paperback), ed.

Morris, Men of Science, Men of God (1982). Fisher, Scientists Who Believe (1984). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Silver Burdett Press, 1991. George Washington Carver: An American Biography, rev. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1963. Race and Meaning: The African American Experience in Missouri, University of Missouri Press, 2014. McKissack, Pat, and Fredrick McKissack.

George Washington Carver: The Peanut Scientist, rev. Berkeley Heights, NJ: Enslow Publishers, 2002. The Story of George Washington Carver, New York: Scholastic, 1995. Carver, Louisiana State University Press, 2015. The item "1945 ORIGINAL AFRICAN AMERICAN ARTIST PHOTO MARTIN JAMES REED NYC HARLEM" is in sale since Monday, August 31, 2020.

This item is in the category "Collectibles\Photographic Images\Contemporary (1940-Now)\Other Contemporary Photographs". The seller is "collectiblecollectiblecollectible" and is located in Ann Arbor, Michigan. This item can be shipped to United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Denmark, Romania, Slovakia, Bulgaria, Czech republic, Finland, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Estonia, Australia, Greece, Portugal, Cyprus, Slovenia, Japan, China, Sweden, South Korea, Indonesia, Taiwan, South africa, Thailand, Belgium, France, Hong Kong, Ireland, Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Italy, Germany, Austria, Bahamas, Israel, Mexico, New Zealand, Philippines, Singapore, Switzerland, Norway, Saudi arabia, United arab emirates, Qatar, Kuwait, Bahrain, Croatia, Malaysia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa rica, Dominican republic, Panama, Trinidad and tobago, Guatemala, El salvador, Honduras, Jamaica, Antigua and barbuda, Aruba, Belize, Dominica, Grenada, Saint kitts and nevis, Saint lucia, Montserrat, Turks and caicos islands, Barbados, Bangladesh, Bermuda, Brunei darussalam, Bolivia, Ecuador, Egypt, French guiana, Guernsey, Gibraltar, Guadeloupe, Iceland, Jersey, Jordan, Cambodia, Cayman islands, Liechtenstein, Sri lanka, Luxembourg, Monaco, Macao, Martinique, Maldives, Nicaragua, Oman, Peru, Pakistan, Paraguay, Reunion, Viet nam, Uruguay, Russian federation.

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1945 Original African American Artist Photo Martin James Reed Nyc Harlem   1945 Original African American Artist Photo Martin James Reed Nyc Harlem